Telangana State History

Telangana also known as Trilinga, Telinga, Trikalinga as a geographical term have been of interest to the historians since long.

The land of the Telugu people was referred to, during ancient times, as Trilingadesa (country of Trilinga). The word Telugu is believed to have been derived from trilinga, as in Trilinga Desha, "the country of the three lingas". According to a Hindu chronicle, Shiva descended as linga on three mountains which marked the boundaries of the Telugu country, namely Kaleshwaram in Telangana, Srisailam in Rayalaseema and Bhimeswaram, also known as Draksharamam, in Coastal Andhra.

The capital of Tilangan was called as Triglypton or Trilingon by Ptolemy, which is an attempt to render into greek the meaning of Trilinga or Trai-linga the three lingas of Mahavadeva

Vayu Purana mentions 'tilinga' as the name of a Janapada.

Epigraphic Sources
Srirangam plates of Mummadi Nayaka of 1358 AD gives the boundary of Tilinga, which is to the West and East, Maharashtra and Kalinga; to the south and the north Pandya and Kanyakuvja

Akkalapundi grant of Singaya Nayaka of 1368 AD mentions Desastrilinganama and Trilingadesadhipat.

Purle plates of Indravarman mentions that the donee came from tilinga and got land in kalinga.

Foreign Sources
Tarantha by caldwell mentions Trilinga.
Arab and Persion authors wrote Tilong and Tilingana
Ptlomey mentions Triglipyton or Trilingon

245 Million BC - 66 Million BC : Mesozoic Era Age of Reptiles, Age of Conifers
During the Mesozoic, Pangaea Continent began separating into the modern continents, and the modern Rocky Mountains rose. Dinosaurs, crocodiles, and pterosaurs ruled the land and air.

Scientists divide the Mesozoic Era into three periods: the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous.
245 Million BC - 208 Million BC : Triassic

208 Million BC - 146 Million BC Jurassic
The 16-foot-high ‘Kotasaurus Yamanpalliensis', was found during an excavation by the Geological Survey of India (GSI) in Yamanapalli region of Adilabad district. A GSI team unearthed the skeletons of gigantic reptiles, which lived on earth approximately 165 million years ago in the Lower Jurassic period.

Fossils of a species of tree that is millions of years old, measuring 25-40 feet long, have been reported from inside a forest in Kannaigudem mandal of Mulugu district.

It may be mentioned here that while Telangana has many sites where fossils of dinosaurs, other prehistoric creatures and trees have been discovered in districts like Adilabad, Mancherial and Khammam, the State does not have a designated single fossil park yet, although around 11 such parks exist in the country.

146 Million BC - 66 Million BC : Cretaceous
Deccan Volcanism caused the mass extinction 66 million years ago. Mercury linked to Deccan Traps volcanism, climate change and the end-Cretaceous mass extinction
66 Million BC - Current : Cenozoic Era Age of Mammals, era of modern life.
The Cenozoic Era is the age of mammals. The Cenozoic Era started with the extinction of dinosaurs and moved into the age of mammals.

During the Cenozoic, Pangea broke up, with India and Africa slamming into the southern part of Eurasia to uplift the Himalayas and Alps.

3,00,000 BC - 5000 BC : Stone Age
The longest period of human existence which lasted about 2.5 million years. The Stone Age is divided into 3 periods. Paleolithic (Old Stone Age), Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age), Neolithic (New Stone Age)

3,00,000 BC - 50,000 BC : Paleolithic (Old Stone Age)
The Paleolithic Era(Old Stone Age) began when hominins first made tools. These tools were used to make their lives easier. Paleolithic people lived in temporary shelters like tents or caves because they were nomads. Early Stone Age tools were found in various places in Telangana. Stone tools of this period are of the core type, made by chipping of stone to form a cutting edge, or the flake type, made from fragments struck of stones. Hand axes were the typical tools of these early hunters and food gathers.
3,00,000 BC - 1,50,000 BC - Lower Paleolithic Age
1,50,000 BC - 1,00,000 BC - Middle Paleolithic Age
1,00,000 BC - 50,000 BC - Upper Paleolithic Age

50,000 BC - 25,000 BC : Mesolithic Age (Middle Stone Age)
Hunting and food gathering is the main occupation. Early men of Mesolithic age made fire by rubbing sticks together, known as Arani in sanskrit. Quartzite, flint, crystal. agate, chalesdon and jasper types of rocks and stones were used to make implements during this period.

25,000 BC - 5000 BC : Neolithic (New Stone Age)
The Neolithic or New Stone Age began when humans invented agriculture. Neolithic people learned how to farm and domesticate animals and are not nomadic. A lot of Neolithic people began to live in the fertile crescent. Out of the material remains of the Neolithic people, which survived
the ravages of time, was the stone-axe, made out of igneous or metamorphic; rocks, such as diorite, dolerite and basalt, The other less common varieties are small tools either hafted or used as adzes, small chisels, picks, fabricators, hammer-stones and sling stones, etc.

Rock paintings found in Telangana reveal the love humans had for art and nature as long ago as 10,000 BCE. These paintings also reveal that a plethora of wild animals existed across the length and breadth of the state once upon a time.An interesting rock painting is that of a giraffe at Pandavulagutta in Warangal, as in the present world giraffes are found only in Africa. One can get a glimpse into the prehistoric man’s mind by looking at rock art which exists on walls and ceilings of caves, rock shelters and isolated boulders.

Below are some of Neolithic sites excavated in Telangana Nalgonga : Thogarrai. Karimnagar : Kadambapur, Budigapalli. Warangal : Decerappula,Polakonda.

c. 5,000 BC - 700 BC : Megalithic (Iron or Metal Age) or Vedic Period
5,000 BC - 2,200 BC: Copper-Bronze Age
2,200 BC : Iron Age
Iron was used by the megalithic people to meet domestic, warfare and agricultural needs. Iron Age may have come into existence in Telangana much before the rest of the world. At least that's the conclusion reached by archaeologists excavating the University of Hyderabad campus who found iron artifacts dating back to roughly 2,200 BC. A megalith is a large, often undressed stone, most megalithic monuments consist of a number of stones, which are fitted together without the use of mortar or cement.

Megaliths are a special class of Monuments in Deccan particularly in Telangana State. Almost all types of megalithic monuments like menhirs, stone circles, dolmens and dolmonoid cists are reported in hundreds of villages in all Telangana Districts.

Discovery of cruciform monoliths in male and female forms known as Statue-Menhirs on the Mallugrugutta (Warangal) Galabha, Kachanapally (Khammam) is a unique feature in the megalithic culture of the mid-Godavari valley. The Megalithic monuments located in Telangana are usually dated anywhere between 1000 B.C and 200 A.D.

At Pullur Banda village (18°10'34"N 78°48'41"E), Siddipet Mandal, Medak district, there are nearly 50 Megalithic burials located. These are classified into three types viz., Menhir, Cairns and Dolmens.

The time of the Vedas cannot be asserted before 6000 BC and thus Vedic civilisation is proved more ancient than the Indus Valley civilisation,” department head Ramesh Bhardwaj said in his keynote address, claiming that a correlation of archaeological, literary and astronomical evidence suggested so.

The Vedas existed in oral form and were passed down from master to student for generations until they were committed to writing around c. 1500 BC

Early Vedic Period or Rigvedic Period Rigveda. This text is cited as the earliest text from this period. The caste system was flexible and based on profession rather than birth. There was no concept of Shudra or untouchables

Later Vedic Period
Yajurveda. Samaveda, Atharvaveda. The caste system became more rigid in this period with birth being the main criteria. Shudras became a mainstay in the Later Vedic period. Their sole function was to serve those of the upper-castes

Sculptures belonging to Jain Thirthankaras of the Vedic period have been discovered at Siddenki village 10 km from the district headquarters and just 3 km away from the famous Kolanukapaka temple.
Local historian Ratnakar Reddy who brought these sculptures to light observed that these sculptures represented the first Tirthankara Rishabhanatha of Vedic period, 23rd Tirthankara Parshvanatha and 24th Tirthankara of 599-527 BC.

According to Jainism, a Tirthankara is the one who preaches the dharma or the righteous path. They were considered wise and equal to God.

The sculptures were found on a hillock called ‘Bommala Gutta and `Siddhula Gutta’ by the locals. Some inscriptions were also found on the hillock. A water pond can also be found inside the hillock.

700 BC - 300 BC : Janapadas The Janapadas were the realms, republics and kingdoms of the Indian Vedic period the (Iron Age) from about 1200 BCE. Concluding with the rise of sixteen Mahajanapadas ("great janapadas"), most of the states were later annexed by more powerful neighbours, whilst others remained independent.

Asmaka (One of the 16 Mahajanapadas)
Founder : Unknown (Believed to be Asmaka)
Capitals : Potana or Potali or Paudanya of Mahabharata or today's Bodhan.
Languages : Prakrit
Religion : Budhism, Jainism, Hinduism

"Assaka" (Prakrit) or "Asmaka" (Sanskrit) signifies "stony region" and was located in the Deccan region.
Modern day Bodhan (Nizamabad) is believed to be the capital of Assaka Janapada.

The reference to Asmaka Janapada, part of present Telangana, as one of the 16 Janapadas in ancient India proves that there exist​ed an advanced stage of society.

Nanda Dynasty : Asmaka was annexed into Magadha by Mahapadma Nanda (345 - 329) and recieved the title of "Destroyer of Kshatriyas" when he founded the Nanda Dynasty.

302 BC - 298 BC : Megasthenes (Greek ethnographer and explorer) Visited India around 300 BC as an Ambassador of Seleucus I of Syria to Pataliputra capital of Mauryan Empire, wrote that a powerful race called Andarae controlling countless villages and 30 well-built fortified towns. Much gold is found in their country.

300 BC : Bindusura (298 BC – 272 BC) son of Chandragupta (320 - 298) of Mauryan Empire conquered territory in vast deccan plateau of peninsular India (the modern states of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh)

c.300 BC - 232 BC : Mauryan Empire (322 BC –185 BC)
Founder : Chandragupta Maurya (320 BC - 298 BC)
Capital : Pataliputra
Languages : Prakrit
Religion : Budhism, Jainism, Brahmanism

Came to power by overthrowing the Nanda Dynasty in 322 BC.

One of the first five disciples of the Buddha, Kondanna is a typical name from Telangana and though there is no exact information about his native place, the earliest known Buddhist township of Kondapur in Medak district is believed to be after him. The Buddha himself famously acknowledged that it was Kondanna who understood him properly. The Buddhist sources say that Bavari, a Brahmin from Badanakurti in Karimnagar sent his disciples to all the way to north India to learn Buddhism and spread the message in this region.

c. 232 BC - c. 208 AD : Pre-Satavahana and Satavahana Dynasty
Excavations in kotilingala found punch marked coins of Pre Satavahana rulers
Rano Gobhadasa, Siri Kama, Sirivaya, Siri Naransa, Rano Sama Govasa
Siri Satavhanasa, Rano Siri Sataka Rinisa, Rano Siri Simukha Satavahanasa, Rano Siri Satakanasa, Rano Siri Pulomavisa, Mahatalavarasa, Maha Senapthi Sagamanasa, Salakasa, Mahatalavara Sivakhada, Maharathi Sivakanasa

With collapse of Mauryan power soon after Asoka in second century BC the local administrative officers , who were called Maharathis , Mahatalavara and Mahasenapati built up their own kingdoms and began to issue their own coins.

The Maharathis may be looked upon as the earliest known rulers of the deccan . They were succeed by Kura, Ananda, Hasti, Mahatalavara, Sada, Sebaka families in deccan.

Maharathis and Mahabhojas started issuing coins earlier than other local ruling groups of the then

Sabara / Sebaka Kingdom Pedda Bankur, Dhulikatta, Kotilingala of Karimnagar and Peddapalli districts were considered to be a part of this kingdom. Sebaka coins found in Kotilingala
An ancient fort and many mints were found in the excavations conducted at Dhulikatta. Coins with letters – ‘Raja seelakasa’ in Brahmi script (of 3rd century B.C.) were also found there. The meaning of that was the coins were issued by king Silakasa. He was considered as a Sebaka king belonging to the Sahara race.
So it can be concluded that Sebaka State was one of the ancient kingdoms. This was also conquered by Satavahanas

Rāno Sebakasa in Brahmi. This king Sebaka has been designated as a successor of king Dimabhāga
The Sabaras and the Pulindas were forest tribes in south India according to the Markandeya Purana. According to a popular Sahara tradition, two brothers, Rama and Bhima, came to the top of the Mahendra Mountain where they settled and occupied the entire range of mountains extending as far as the Vindhyas in Central India.

People called the Sabara race lived in the region between the Andhakarattam and Kalinga kingdom. They had a separate state even from the period of Ramayana. They continued living at the river Valley region of Sabari (in the North Andhra region of today) during 6th century B.C.

Satavahana Dynasty
Founder : Simuka
Languages : Prakrit, Sanskrit, Telugu
Religion : Budhism, Jainism, Hinduism
Around 208 AD Abhiras / Abheeras declared there independence and Vashishthiputra Sri Santamula (Santamula I) founder of Ikshvakus and the general of Satavahanas declared his independence from Satavahanas by killing the last ruler Pulumavi III.

Taking advantage of the confusion prevailing in the North, the Assaka Janapada developed into the Satavahana empire absorbing the neighbouring Mulaka and Sebaka Janapadas.

Maharathi Dynasty
Ruled regions of Khammam, Nalgonda and Mahabunagar
Declared independence after fall of Mauryan empire.

Maharathi was one of the titles that adorned the feudal rulers during the Satavahana period. The titles known from numismatic evidence include Maharathi, Mahabhoja, Mahagamika, Mahasenapati, Mahatalawara, Gamikumara.The Maharathi coins of Kondapur can be broadly classified as lion type and elephant type.

Coin of Maharathisa Siva Kshapanasa

When studies were conducted on the rulers of Nelakondapally, Khammam district, and some regions of Karnataka, the name of a dynasty called ‘Maharathi’ was revealed. Ashoka’s stone inscriptions called them as ‘Rathikas’. Historians opined that they were kings of subordinate kingdoms at different regions during the Mauryan rule. They declared independence after the fall of Mauryan empire in Telangana and Karnataka regions. They ruled some regions of Telangana and Karnataka until 100-150 A.D.

Maharathi Tranakiya daughter is queen Nayanika of Satakarni IMaharathi Mahakutuba coin

Satavahanas, whether they are related to them or not is not known. But the discovery of their coins indicates that they had their kingdom in the Karimnagar district region. As a coin with the name ‘Satavahana’ was found in Kondapur, their kingdom must have been located in Nizamabad and Medak region.

The Maharathis of the Maurya Satavahana interlude were virtually independent rulers, whereas those under the Satavahanas were essentially feudatories.

Satavahanas ruled at nizamabad and Adilabad regions at the same time. That means that the first Satavahanas controlled only the North Telangana. Their kingdom had extended more into to Maharashtra, Vidarbha and West Karnataka regions. This situation continued until the period of Gautamiputra Satakami. Gautamiputra Satakami attacked and conquered these kingdoms. Then, his son Pulomavi had became the ruler of Telangana and Andhra region, and made Dhanyakataka his capital.

Inscription and Coins reveals the history.The discovery of the coins of Simukha at Kotilingala strengthens the claim of Telangana as the original home of Satavahanas.

The coins issued by the Satavahana kings Simuka, Siri Satavahana, Satakani I, Satasiri, Satakani II, Vasittiputta Pulumayi, Vasistiputra Satakarni and their governors were discovered in Kotilingala. These discoveries testify the fact that Telangana was the nucleus of Satavahana Empire.

As a coin with the name ‘Simukha’ was found along with the coins of gobhadra and Samagopa, it is concluded that Simukha conquered their kingdom. That is why the upper layers at Kotilingala revealed the coins of Satavahanas. Though Satavahanas conquered the above kingdom, they left the kingdom of Maharathi dynasty at Nalgonda and Mahabubnagar districts region alone.

It is said that Simukha married a woman of Maharathi dynasty; and also his daughter-in-law was a Maharathi princess. That might be the reason for him to not to conquer their kingdom. Simukha turned left to his kingdom, conquered the Asmaka and Mulaka kingdoms and made Pratishtanapura his kingdom. That is why, though the rule of Satavahanas began in Nizamabad region, it did not expand into today’s coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema, but expanded towards Maharashtra and Vidarbha and later on to South Karnataka.

During excavations in the area between rivers Krishna and Tungabhadra, coins of kings named ‘Maharathi Maha hastin’, ‘Maharathi Siva Mahahastin’ and ‘Maharathi Khadga Padihastin’ were
found. These coins contain a picture of elephant on them, some say that they belong to Maharathi dynasty and others say that they belong to Hastina dynasty.

The coins of Suryamitra (1st century BC) of Vidarbha Kingdom were over struck by the Satavahana ruler Satakarni-I.

King Kharavela of Kalinga was a contemporary of Satakarni I and gave him considerable trouble.

Naneghat inscription was inscribed by Naganika, the wife of Satakami -I after the death of her husband. It says that Satakarni conquered western Malwa, Anupa on the Narmada valley and Vidarbha. It also says that Satakami performed Aswamedha and Rajasuya sacri ces and proclaimed himself Samrat and assumed the , titles of ‘Dakshina Padapathi’ and ‘Apratihata chakra’.

As the Satavahana dynasty rule strengthened in the Western Deccan, the Maha megha vahana dynasty which declared independence in the Kalinga region conquered the East Coast. Kharavela of that dynasty was very famous as a courageous king. He conquered the East Coast up to Pandya kingdom. His descendants and later rulers of Sada dynasty ruled the Kalinga and Coastal area.

Gautamiputra Satakarni invaded the South Telangana, defeated the Sada dynasty and annexed the Andhra and Kalinga regions to the Satavahana empire. With that, today’s coastal Andhra, Rayalaseema and Telangana regions became a part of the Satavahana empire. The Satavahana era began with that.

Gautami Putra Satakami restruck the silver coinage of Nahapana, the Saka king.
According to Ptolemy, Chashtana directly ruled Ujjain, while Paithan (Pratisthana) continued to be ruled by Siristolemaios (identified with Sri Pulumayi, son of Gautamiputra Satakarni).
A gold coin of Hadrian (117 to 138A.D) and other roman coins found at Nagarjunakonda.

Vassals of Satavahanas
Chutus of Banavasi in North Karnataka
Abhiras in the western part of the kingdom
Pallavas of Kanchipuram

Talavara dynasty Mahatalavara is the title given to a chief or head Mahatala or the one who was in charge of revenue collection besides law and order of a particular territory

Numismatically, the Mahatalavaras are known from several sites in Telangana such as Kotalingala, Dhulikatta, Kondapur, Sangareddy, Vardhamanakota, Devaruppala, Panigiri, Jangaon, Pajjuru of Nalgonda district bears the horse as the main motif on their coins.

The discovery of a Mahatalavara sealing at Peddabankuru read Mahatalavarasa Majasamikasa Siva Sebakasa, It therefore referred to a Mahatalavara named Siva Sebaka

A coin, with the name Mahatalavara-sivakha- da, which was found in Palakonda of Warangal district informs that there was dynasty called called Talavara’. Subordinate kings and army chiefs with the name Talavara, worked under Ikshvaku rulers who ruled after the Satavahanas. Before the coins, with the name Talavara on them were found, it was thought that Talavara was a designation as it appeared in the inscriptions of Ikshvakus. But the coins found in Palakonda revealed that it was the name of dynasty.

c.208 AD - c. 280 AD : Abhiras / Abheeras (c. 208 - c. 375 AD)
Founder : Isvarasena
Language : Sanskrit
Religion : Hinduism (Saivism)

Abhiras were subordinate rulers of Western Satraps and declared independence after fall of Satavahanas.

Abheeras ruled the Telangana region contemporary to Ikshvakus.
Around 280 AD Haritiputra Vinhukada Chutukulananda Satakarni probably defeated Abheeras and occupied telangana region

c. 208 AD - 320 AD : Mahisha Saka Chutu Dynasty
Capital : Banavasi or Vanavasi in present-day Karnataka state.
Founder : Rano Chutukulanda
Langauges : Prakrit
Religion : BudhismEmblem : Chutu inscriptions contain the emblem of the cobra hood implying Chutu meant the "cobra crest"

Chutus were originally Sakas and that they became feudataries of Satavahana after Gautamiputra Satakarni occupied extensive territories from Nahapana. One member of the Chutu family was appointed Mahasenapati in the Kondapur region and another was appointed to govern Gautamiputra's new acquired city of Banavasi.

Saka Mana MahishaThe reverse motif resembles the swastika-type coins of Mahasenapathi Saka Mana Chutukulasa Mahisha son of Bhardvaja discovered in the excavation at Kondapur.
Copper coins in Hyderabad of Rano Saka Mana Mahsasa.
Became King from Mahasenapathi

c. 280 - c. 292 AD : Haritiputra Vinhukada Chutukulananda Satakarni
Wife Nagamulanika : Mother of Skandanaga Sataka, Sister of Dhanasena
Coins of Rano Chutukadanamdasa were discovered from Karwar and Banavasi

c. 292 - c. 320 AD : SkandanagaSkanda Naga extends the Chutu realm to Aparanta north of modern Bombay.
Alliance between Pallavas and Chutus : A Pallava prince married the daughter of the King Śiva - Skanda - Nâga - Śâtakarṇi , and inherited the throne of Kanchi.

It is these Chutukula successors in the territory immediately adjoining that of the Pallavas that must be the Naga family by a marriage alliance with Simhavarman I (c.320 AD) son Siva-skanda-varman who must have defeated Skandanaga around 320 AD, This changed status of the kings can also be seen especially in the Manchikallu stone inscription of Simhavarman I, the Mayidavolu plates of his son yuvamaharaja Sivaskandavarman

208 AD - c. 320 AD : Ikshvakus
Founder : Vashishthiputra Sri Santamula (Santamula I) : 208 - c. 250 AD

Capitals : Vijayapuri (Nagarjunakonda).
Language : Telugu
Religion : Hinduism, Budhism
Ikshvakus were originally feudatories of the Satavahanas and bore the title Mahatalavara.

Ruled Nalgonda and Khammam regions in Telangana.

In one of the Peddabankur (Karimnagar) inscriptions of Virapurushadatta, the Ikshvaku king of Vijayapuri, it was stated that his father Santamula I donated thousands of ploughs in order to promote agriculture.

Santamula's mother was Vashishthi, as is evident from his name. Virapurushadatta was the son and successor of Santamula through his wife Madhari. He had a sister named Adavi Santisri. He took a queen from the Saka family of Ujjainand gave his daughter in marriage to a Chutu prince.

The Saka-Ikshvaku marriage was undoubtedly of some political significance. It may have checked the advance of Abhiras into Eastern Deccan.

The Saka-Ikshvaku marriage was undoubtedly of some political significance. It may have checked the advance of Abhiras into Eastern Deccan.

The last of the Iksvaku kings was overthrown by Pallava ruler Simhavarman I (A.D. 315-345) around c.320 AD.

c. 320 AD - 340 AD : Pallava Dynasty (275 AD - 897 AD)
Pallavas were initially feudatories of Satavahanas and later ruled independently from Kanchipuram.

c. 315 - c. 340 : Simhavarman I
320 AD : Occupied Western Deccan including Telangana region around 320 AD by defeating Chutu ruler Siva Skanda.

c. 320 - 345 AD : Hariti-putra Siva-skanda-varman
345 AD : Mayurasharma of Kadamba dynasty defeated Pallavas around 345 AD
340 AD : Vakataka ruler Sarvasena defeated Pallavas in Telangana region around 340 AD.

c. 340 - 477 A.D : Vakataka Dynasty (250 AD - 500 AD)
Founder : Vindhyashakti (250 AD - 270 AD)
Capitals : Vatsagulma, the present day Washim in Maharashtra.
Languages : Maharashtri Prakrit, Sanskrit
Religion : Budhism, Hinduism

Vatsagulma branch Founder : Sarvasena (c.325 - c.355 AD) son of Pravarasena I (270 AD - 330 AD) ruled Telangana with Vatsagulma as Capital

Emperor Harisena, his prime minister Varahadeva, the feudatory King Upendragupta of the Rishika region rules over Ajanta region until defeated by Asmakas in 477 AD. Harishena was the last known ruler of the Vatsagulma branch of the Vakataka dynasty.A princess of the then powerful ruling family of the Deccan the Vakatakas was given in marriage to Madhav Varma's (456 AD - 504 AD) son, Vikramendra Varma (504 - 528).

Asmakas and Vishnukundins have put an end to Vakataka rule.

c.380 AD - c.611 AD : Vishnukundins
Founder : Indravarma/Maharajendrvarma (380 AD - 394 AD)
Capitals : Amrabad in Mahaboonagar and extended it to Bhuvanagiri, Ramannapeta in Nalgonda and Keesaragutta in Rangareddy. Built Indrapala in Nalgonda. Eluru, Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh
Languages : Telugu, Sanskrit
Religion : Hinduism (Vaisnavism)

The reign of Madhav Varma-II (456-503 C.E.) was a golden age in the history of the Vishnukundins. It was during this period, the small Vishnukundin dynasty rose to imperial heights.

Madhav Varma II led his arms against Ananda Gotrikas who were ruling over Guntur, Tenali and Ongole, probably enjoying subordinate position under the Pallavas of Kanchipuram.

Madhav Varma II next turned his attention against the Vengi kingdom which was under the Salankayanas. The Vengi region was annexed. The Godavari tract became part of the Vishnukundin territory. After these conquests the capital might have been shifted to Bezwada (Vijayawada), a more central location than Amarapura. These extensive conquests entitle him to the title of the lord of Dakshinapatha (southern country). After these various conquests Madhav Varma performed many Asvamedha, Rajasuya and other Vedic sacrifices.

The Vishnukundin reign came to an end with the conquest of the eastern Deccan by the Chalukya, Pulakeshin II. Pulakeshin appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as Viceroy to rule over the conquered lands. Eventually Vishnuvardhana declared his independence and started the Eastern Chalukya dynasty.

It is likely that the Chalukya Pulikesin II (610– 642 AD) defeated Madhav Varma IV on 21st October 611 AD as per the Kopparam plates of Pulikesin II.
Madhava's son Manchana Bhattaraka might have been expelled by the Chalukyas by the end of 624 AD.

Hyderabad was captured by Badami Chalukyan King Pulakeshin II in 611 AD.

c.450 AD - c.611 AD : Durjaya Dynasty
Founder : Rana Durjaya
Durjaya dynasty, was a descendant of Karikala, the great Chola monarch who started as vassals to Vishnukundins. It is likely that Maharaja Ranadurjaya, the first ruler of this SriramakaSyapa family , was a contemporary of Vishnukundin Madhavavarman II (456-503 A.D.) and his subordinate for some time.

Prithvi Maharaja ruled over a vast kingdom extending from Jajpur (Vaitarani) to the river Godavari in the south. This King defeated Vishnukundin king Vikramendra Varma II (555-569) and declared independence.

611 A.D may be approximately fixed as the date of Pulakesin II's victory over Prithvimaharaja. We get a reference to the horrors of the battle evidently fought between Pulakesin II and Prithvi Maharaja on the bank of the Kunala or the Kolleru on the left bank of which stood the fortress of Pistapura.

c.550 AD - 753 AD : Badami Chalukyas (543 AD - 753 AD)
Founder : Pulakeshin I
Capitals : Badami
Languages : Kannada, Sanskrit
Religion : Jainism, Hinduism
Pulakeshin I took over some regions of Telanagana from Vishnukundins in c.550 AD and remaining by Pulikesin II in 611 A.D.
Pulakeshin II defeated Durjaya Dynasty in 611 AD and defeated Vishnukundins in 611 AD and completely by 624 AD.
The Badami Chalukyas began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi. The Chalukya dynasty was established by Pulakeshin I in 543. Pulakeshin I took Vatapi (modern Badami in Bagalkot district, Karnataka) under his control and made it his capital.

642 AD - 655 AD: Pallava King Narasimhavarman I (630 - 668 AD) defeated Pulakeshin II.
753 AD : Yudhamalla I of Vemulawada Chalukyas and Rashtrakuta Dantudurga planned and carried out the overthrow of Kirtivarman II, the last Chalukya ruler of Badami.

753 AD - 973 AD : Rashtrakuta Dynasty
Founder : Dantidurga Capitals : Manyakheta
Languages : Kannada, Sanskrit
Religion : Jainism, Hinduism

The Elichpur clan was a feudatory of the Badami Chalukyas, and during the rule of Dantidurga, it overthrew Chalukya Kirtivarman II and went on to build an empire with the Gulbarga region in modern Karnataka as its base. This clan came to be known as the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, rising to power in South India in 753.

c.750 AD to 973 AD : Vemulavada Chalukyas (vassals to Rashtrakuta Dynasty) ruled Karimnagar and Nizamabad. One of the famous chalukya dynasties, who ruled the North-Western part of Telangana region as feudatory kings of the Rashtrakutas, were the vemulawada chalukyas. Pulakesin-II, the Badami Chalukya king was the originator of this dynasty. Ten generations of this dynasty ruled the region with vemulawada of Karimnagar district as their capital. Their kingdom began with the Rashtra kutas and ended also with Rashtrakutas.

According to the kollipara inscription of Arikesari-I, satyasraya Ranavikrama was the founder of vemulawada chalukya dynasty. He ruled between 641 A.D. and 660 A.D. Later, his son prithvipati ruled between 660-695 A.D., artd his son Maharaju ruled between 700-725 A.D. and his son Rajaditya Pridvivikrama ruled between 725-750 AD. But the geography of their kingdom was not known clearly.

c.750 AD to 973 AD: Kakatiyas ruled as vassals to Rashrakuta ruled with kakatipura in warangal as capital. Also ruled koravi or kurravadi in warangal district.

In 973, seeing confusion in the Rashtrakuta empire after a successful invasion of their capital by the ruler of the Paramara dynasty of Malwa, Tailapa II, a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty ruling from Bijapur region defeated his overlords and made Manyakheta his capital.

c. 850 AD - 1200 AD : Mudigonda Chalukyas, ruled as vassals to Vengi Chalukyas and later Kakatiyas, most of modern-day Khammam district.

The second Chalukya dynasty which ourished during the Rashtrakuta era in Telangana was of the Mudigonda Chalukyas.

This was a subordinate/feudatory dynasty which supported the Vengi-Chalukyas against the Rashtrakuta and later on against the Kakatiyas also in the Telugu regions in early middle ages. Their capital was “Mudigonda” of the Khammam region. The Khammam and Warangal regions were called as, Koravi seema and Visuruntidu during middle ages. The Eastern region of Koraviseema was called as Manchikondanadu. The Mudigonda ’chalukyas ruled this region with Mudigonda as their capital between 850 and 1200 A.D. This kingdom bordered the Vengi region from river Krishna to river Godavari.

973 AD - 1149 AD : Western Chalukyas / Kalyani Chalukyas (973 AD - 1189 AD)
Founder : Tailapa II Capitals : Manyakheta, Kalyani (Basavakalyan in Bidar , Karnataka)

Languages : Kannada, Sanskrit
Religion : Jainism, Hinduism

973 AD - 1158 AD : Kakatiyas, ruled as vassals to Western Chalukyas over most of the combined modern-day Warangal district, and parts of neighboring Karimnagar district with Anumakonda (Hanumakonda) as capital held since the rule of Beta I.

1075 AD - 1165 AD : Nengonda Dynasty
The Polavasa chiefs / Polasa(Descendents of Rashtrakuta Dynasty)
Their reign in Telangana is described in the Banajipet, Palampet and Govindapuram inscriptions and were subordinates of the Western Chalukyas ruling parts of Karimnagar and Warangal, but revolted against their overlords. However, they were eventually subdued by Chalukya King Jagadekamalla II, with the support of Kakatiya King Beta II (1076 - 1108) for which he was awarded Sabbi-1000 region (modern-day Karimnagar district).

1080 AD - 1260 AD : Kanduru Cholas
Ruled parts of Mahabubnagar (Jadcharla and Acchampet taluks) and Nalgonda (Nalgonda and Miryalguda taluks) districts with Kanduru Panugallu and Vardhamanpura as their capitals.

A branch of the Telugu Chola dynasty ruled the Nalgonda, Mahabubnagar and Khammam regions of Telangana for 250 years. As their capital was Kandur, they came to be called as the Kandur Chola dynasty. Not only Kandur but they also made Kolanupaka, Vardhamanapur, Kodur and panagallu towns as their capitals, which ourished during their rule. They belonged to the Chola dynasty who ruled the Eruva region. As names like Danavarma and Kodur were mentioned in their inscriptions, it was the ought that they belonged to the Pothapi Chola branch. Bhimaraja-II of Eruva Chola dynasty helped Vikramaditya-VI of Kalyani Chalukya dynasty and changed his capital to Kandur. From then onwards, their dynasty was called as the ‘Kandur Cholas’. Their kingdom was bigger than the kingdom of Kakatiyas, who were the subordinate rulers of Kalyani Chalukyas.

1104 AD - 1108 AD : Paramara Jagaddeva youngest son of Udayaditya of Paramara Dynasty. Jagaddeva worked under the Western Chalukyas as the governor of Kollipaka-7000 province in present Kolanupaka, Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district. The territory of Kollipaka was governed by Jagaddeva between 1104 and 1108. However, he was eventually deprived of this position by King Vikramaditya VI, after he attempted to establish an independent kingdom in the province. King Vikramaditya appointed his own son, Kumara Somesvara, to replace Jagaddeva as governor. In retaliation, Jagaddeva seems to have allied himself with the Polavasa chiefs (who were also eager to break free from Chalukya dominance), and attacked other states who remained allied with the Western Chalukyas. In particular, Jagaddeva launched an attack on the Kakatiyas to his east.

So long Vikramadiya VI (1076 AD - 1126 AD) lived, Prola II of Kakatiya owed allegiance

1136 AD : Responsible for subduing the Telugu Cholas of Kandur who defeated King Govinda and gave his kingdom to Udayaditya.

1137 AD : Defeated Kumara Tailapa, a brother of the Chalukya king Someshvara III and a governor, who had asserted sovereignty.

1149 AD : Tailapa-III or Kuamara Tailapa was defeated by Kakatiya Prola II around 1149 AD and asserts his independence over Western Chalukyas. Tailapa III was taken captive and later released bringing down the prestige of the Western Chalukyas.

1158 AD : The earliest extant record from Rudradeva's reign as sovereign power is the 1158 CE Daksharamam inscription issued by his minister Inangala Brammireddi. Probably Prola II declared his independence after the death of Chalukya Jagadekamalla II (1138 - 1158 AD)

1158 AD - 1323 AD : Kakatiya Dynasty
Founder : Venna
Capitals : Anumakonda(Hanumakonda), Orugallu / Ekasilanagara (Warangal)
Languages : Telugu, Sanskrit, Kannada
Religion : Jainism, Hinduism (Saivism)

Kaktiya rule started in c.750 AD as subordinates. But, they ruled independently from 1163 AD.

Kaktiya Erra (895 - 940 AD) is given the land of Kurravadi in Warangal, in repayment for the services of his father Gunda III (870 - 895 AD) by Rashtrakuta king Krishna II (878-914)
An ambitious sovereign king, Rudradeva (1158 - 1195) extends the boundaries of his kingdom: in the north (taking in modern day Karimnagar, and East Godavari); in the south (where he turns his attention to the Kandur Telugu Chola kings Bhima and Udaya Choda in Nalagonda and Mahboobnagar, sacking their cities, Vardhamana and Kandur); and in the east (the Chalukya Chola regions of king Rajaraja III).

Feudatories of Kakatiyas
Recherla Chiefs - Elkurti Branch
Ruled areas in Warangal, Nalgonda, Rangareddy.
Recherla Rudra
Recherla Chiefs - Pillalamarri Branch
Ruled areas in Nalgonda.
Recherla Nama & Beta

Viriyala Chiefs
Ruled areas in Khammam.

Natavadi Chiefs
Ruled areas in Khammam, Nalgonda and Warangal.

Malyala Chiefs
Ruled areas in Karimnagar, Mahabubnagar and Warangal.

Cheraku Chiefs
Ruled areas in Mahabubnagar and Nalgonda.

Kayastha Chiefs
Ruled areas in Nalgonda.

Gona Chiefs
Ruled areas in Nalgonda.
Ruled Vardhamanapuram. Gona Budhareddy and Gona Gannareddy are the great kings who helped Kakatiya Kings. The main centres of this Kingdom are Vardhamanpuram (Vaddemin of Bijinapally Mandal) and Budapuram (Bhoothpur).

Ruled areas in Mahabubnagar
Ruled Amanagallu, Charikonda, Irvin and Vangur (Mahabubnagar).
Rudraya Reddy was the great king of this dynasty.

Yadava Dynasty
During the period of Kakati Mahadeva who defeated by Yadava Kings, this area was under the rule of Yadava of Devagiri. "Sthanumantri" the Dandanayaka of Yadava King Ramachandradeva laid the inscription at Shiva Temple of Magatala (Makthal) about the rule of Yadavas in this area.

1220 AD - 1750 AD: Sirpur-Chanda Gond Dynasty
Founder : Kol Bhill or Kol Bheel or Kolkhil
Capitals : Sirpur (modern Komaram Bheem Asifabad district, Telangana), Ballarshah, Chanda (Chandrapur district, Maharashtra)Languages : Gondi language is known as ‘Koyator’ among Gonds. Southern Gondi, Adilabad Gondi, Northern Gondi, Aheri Gondi are variants of the language.
Religion : Brahmanical Hinduism or Cult of the Persa Pen (clan deities); ancestor spirit worship
Royal Emblem : Lion
Sirpur-Chanda Gond Kingdom flourished along with Kakatiyas, Mususnuru, Recharla Padmanayakas, Bahmani, Golkonda, Moghul and Asaf-Jahi dynasties.
1220 AD - 1240 AD : Kol Bhill or Kol Bheel or Kolkhil
Contemporary of Kakatiya Ganapatideva.

Neelkanth Shah was the last ruler of Gondwana Kingdom. He was captured as a prisoner by Raghoji Bhonsley who merged the Gondwana kingdom into Maratha kingdom. Maratha kingdom was defeated by British rulers and was given to Nizams. Thus the Gondwana Kingdom became part of Nizam state.

1310 : Malik Kafur general of Delhi Sultanate Alauddin Khilji defeated Prataprudra II and was forced to pay annual tribute to Delhi. It was probably at this time that the Koh-i-Noor diamond passed from Kakatiya ownership to that of Alauddin, along with 20,000 horses and 100 elephants.

1310 AD - 1320 AD : Khilji Dynasty
In 1318, Prataparudra II, the Kakatiya ruler, defied his masters in Delhi by refusing to send the annual tribute expected of him.Prataparudra II declared independance after Qutb-ud-din the laster ruler of Khilji Dynasty was murdered by Khusro Khan in 1320.

1323 : Ulug Khan son of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq captured Warangal from Parataparudra II.

1323 AD - 1336 AD : Tughlaq Dynasty
Ulugh Khan (also known as Muhammad bin Tughluq), the general that conquered Warangal, renamed it "Sultanpur" and remained as the governor of the region for a short period, thus ending the Kakatiya dynasty.

1325 AD : Malik Maqbul or Mala Yugandharudu, was captured and converted to Islam, given the name Malik Maqbul and found a place in the new regime. In 1325 AD When Ulugh Khan left for Delhi soon afterwards, he left Warangal in the charge of Malik Maqbul.

Musunuri Nayakas : In 1336 Kapaya Nayaka took control of Warangal from Malik Maqbul.

1325 AD – 1368 AD : Musunuri Nayaks
1350 : Bahman Shah led his first campaign against Warangal and forced its ruler Kapaya Nayaka to cede to him the fortress.
1368: Anavotha nayaka, son of Singama nayaka killed the Musunuri ruler Kapaya nayaka in 1368.

1350 AD – 1518 AD : Bahmani Sultanate (1347 AD - 1527 AD)
Founder : Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah
Capital : Daulatabad, Gulbarga

1417 A.D : A Telugu inscription in Tellapur of Sangareddy district dating back to Saka year 1340, Hevalambi, Magha su. 1.0, Guruvara and tallied with the expired date of 28th January, 1417 A.D, engraved on a stone slab kept in between two big pillars outside the village refers to Phirojashah Sultan. It records construction of a step-well (nadabavi) with a provision for a water-drawing device (etamu) in the Telumganapura by Nagoju and Layyaloju, descendants of Visva-karmarishi and Valla-bhoju, gift of a mango garden situated on the north of a tank by Nagoju and the presentation of a golden chain and a medal to Phiro-jashah Sultan (Surat-rana) by Layyaloju.Taj ud-Din Firuz Shah (died 1422), also known as Firuz Shah Bahmani, was the ruler of the Bahmani Sultanate from 16 November 1397 to 22 September 1422.
Firuz Shah fought against the Vijayanagara Empire on many occasions and the rivalry between the two dynasties continued unabated throughout his reign, with victories in 1398 and 1406, but a defeat in 1419. One of his victories resulted in his marriage to Deva Raya's daughter.

Recherla chiefs of Rachakonda and Devarakonda served as vassals of Bahmanis after Musunuri Kapaaneedu was killed. Their descendents acquired Zamindaris (Samsthanams) in Mahboobnagar, Kurnool and Raichur Districts.

1463 : Sultan Mohammad Shah Bahmani dispatched Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk to the Telangana region to quell disturbances. Sultan Quli quelled the disturbance and was rewarded as the administrator of the region.

1518 AD: Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk declared Independence

1326 AD - 1475 AD : Recherla Padmanayaka Dynasty
Capitals: Rachakonda and Devarakonda

Founder : Singama nayaka-I

1434 AD - 1518 AD : Orissa Gajapathis
Prataparudra Gajapati reclaimed the regions taken away by Bahamani Sultans. Shitab Khan who helped him in this endeavour was appointed as his Subordinate ruler of Khammam and Orugallu regions.

1503 AD - 1518 AD: Sitapati Raju (known as Shitab Khan) ruled from Rachakonda(Nalgonda), Warangal and Khammam forts.

1509 AD – 1529 AD - Vijayanagara Empire (Tuluva dynasty) - Krishna Deva Raya

1510 A.D : In the Velicherla inscription of 1510 A.D., given by Prataparudra Gajapati, the word 'Telangana' was used as “Ananya Sadharana Sahasa Srirjagraha Paschattelungana Durgan”.
1515 AD : Krishna Deva Raya occupied forts of Anantagiri, Urlugonda, Chityal, Arvapalli and Nalgonda, which had been under the rule of Prataparudra Gajapati, also defeated Shitabh Khan and occupied Warangal and Khammam regions.

Prataparudra Gajapati gave his daughter Takkadevi in marriage to Krishnadevaraya and was given above regions, which means the Telangana region was not under Vijayanagara Kingdom for long.

1518 AD – 1687 AD : Qutbshahis / Golconda Sultanate
1636 AD : In 1636 AD Shah Jahan appointed Aurangzeb as the Viceroy of the Deccan and forced the Qutb Shahis to recognize Mughal suzerainty, which lasted until 1687 when the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered the Golcondan sultanate.

1687 AD : Rock inscription found a few years ago in a remote village called Nagulavancha in Khammam district led to the discovery of a Dutch business hub that existed between 1669 and 1687. “The inscription looked like English and we later learned it was Dutch. The village here used to be a link between the Golconda Kingdom and Machilipatnam on the east coast. The Dutch company produced high-quality yarn here but had to leave in 1687 after the villagers led an uprising against it as they felt they were being exploited. This could be one of the earliest incidents of locals fighting foreigners in our country,” Srinivas said.

September 22 1687 AD : The Siege of Golconda, ordered by Emperor Aurangzeb of India's Mughal Empire against the capital of the Golconda sultanate, ends after nine months when a traitor inside the walled city, Sarandaz Khan, opens the first of several entrances into the fortress. The Sultan Abul Hasan Qutb Shah is taken prisoner by General Mir Shahab ud-Din, and Golconda (now part of Hyderabad in the Telangana state).

1687 AD - 1724 AD : Mughal Empire
1713 : Mir Qamaruddin Siddiqi was appointed governor by the Mughals.
1724 : Mir Qamaruddin Siddiqi was granted the control of Hyderabad by the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah after defeating the rival from Maratha Empire.

1724 AD - 1948 AD : Asaf Jahis
1798 : Hyderabad became the first Indian royal state to accede to British protection under the policy of Subsidiary Alliance instituted by Arthur Wellesley.

Aug 15, 1947 : Indian Independence from British. Osman Ali Khan ASAF Jahi VII chose to remain independent.
Sep 17, 1948 : Operation Polo, was a military operation ordered by then Indian Home Minister Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel on Sep 13 1948 in which the Indian Armed Forces invaded the State of Hyderabad and overthrew its Nizam on Sep 17 1948, integrating Hyderabad in to India.
Sep 17, 1948 - Oct 31, 1956 : Hyderabad State, India.

Sep 17 1948 - Dec 31 1949 : Major General J. N. Chaudhuri who led Operation Polo stayed on as Military Governor.

26 January 1950 - 31 October 1956 : Last Nizam, Osman Ali Khan ASAF Jahi VII as Rajpramukh. Rajpramukh was an administrative title in India which existed from India's independence in 1947 until 1956. Rajpramukhs were the appointed governors of certain of India's provinces and states.
26 Jan, 1950 - 6 March, 1952 : M. K. Vellodi was Chief Minister of the state appointed by Government of India.

6 March, 1952 - 31 October 1956 : In the 1952 Legislative Assembly election, Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected Chief minister of Hyderabad State.

Nov 1, 1956 - June 1, 2014 : Andhra Pradesh State, India
In December 1953, the States Reorganisation Commission was appointed to recommend the reorganisation of state boundaries. The panel was not in favour of an immediate merger of Telangana with Andhra state, despite their common language. With the intervention of the then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, Telangana and Andhra states were merged on November 1, 1956. Nehru termed the merger a "matrimonial alliance having provisions for divorce".

June 2, 2014 : Telangana became 29 state of India. On June 2, 2104, K Chandrasekhar Rao takes oath as the first chief minister of Telangana, India's 29th state.

Types of sources of Indian history:Archeological sources
Literary sources
Foreign Accounts

Archeology is the combination of two word ‘Archaios’ and ‘Logia’, where archaios means ancient and logia means knowledge. There are two methods of excavations- Horizontal and Vertical excavations.

Literary Sources
Literary sources can be broadly divided into:
Religious sources.
Non-religious sources.

Religious Sources:
Vedic texts(four Vedas)
Smriti texts
Buddhist texts
Jain texts

Non-religious Sources:
Arthashastra- Kautilya
Rajtarangini- Kalhana
Nitisara- Kamandaka
Mahabhshya- Patanjali
Mudrarakshasa- Vishakhdutta
Ashtadhayayi- Panini

Foreign Accounts are a part of literary sources which consist of writing of Greek, Roman, Chinese and Arab travelers. In contradiction to Indian historians, foreign travelers too interest in Non-religious incidence. Thus, their work throws light on political and social conditions.

The History of India By John McLeod
india as directed by megasthenes
Historical sketches of ancient Dekhan, by K. V. Subrahmanya Aiyer.
A history of the Deccan. By J. D. B. Gribble
Social and Cultural Life in Medieval Andhra