Ikshvakus of Vijayapuri

208 AD - c.315 AD : Ikshvakus or Ikshavakus of Vijayapuri came to power in Telangana after Satavahanas.
Founder : Vashishthiputra Sri Santamula (Santamula I) 
Capitals : Vijayapuri (Nagarjunakonda).
Language : Sanskrit, Prakrit, Telugu
Religion : Hinduism, Budhism
Ikshvakus were originally feudatories of the Satavahanas and bore the title Mahatalavara.
Ruled Nalgonda, Mahabubnagar and Khammam regions in Telangana. 
Ikshvaku coins were found in the interior Telangana, Keesaraguta assumes great importance due to the fact that the early unadulterated Brahmanical faith flourished here. 

Ikshvaku coins are also found at – Nagarjuna konda, Phanigiri, Nelakondapalli, Vaddemanu (Mahaboobnagar dist.), Eleshwara in Nalgonda district. This indicated the extent of their kingdom.

Ikshvakus were originally feudatories of the Satavahanas and bore the title "Mahatalavara". Although the"Puranas" state that seven kings ruled for 100 years in total, the names of only four of them are known from inscriptions. 

After the decline of the Sātavāhanas, the transition from Prakrit to Sanskrit as an epigraphic language is apparent in the Ikṣvāku inscriptions. 

While the rulers were followers of Brahmanism and performed Vedic sacrifices, their consorts were devotees of the Buddha and erected buildings for the Buddhists settled at Nagarjunakonda and made pious donations to the stupas. Most of these buildings owed their existence to the piety of certain queens and princesses belonging to the royal house of Ikshvaku, the principal founder being a princess named Chamtisiri.

The kings are given the title of Rajan. Sometimes they bear both the titles of Rajan and Maharaja. Santamula I and Santamula II are given the additional title of Svami also.

Besides the rulers, and the princes called Malidrajakumara and Kumdra, the administrative machinery included such posts as Senapati, Talavara, Mahasenapati, Mahatalavara, Mahadandanayaka. Maharahin and Rathika. Members of the royal house, like princes and husbands of princesses held some of these posts. It is noteworthy that the wife of Mahutalavara is called Mahdtalavari and the wife of a Mahasenapati is called Mahasenapatim. A female officer Bhagavata was holding the office of Antahpura-maharatika (in charge of royal harem). Reference to Bhojikas occurs in a record. Mention is made of theoffice of amatya and the minor office of ganapaka (an accountant or astrologer).

They had two subordinate and related families, the Pugiyas and Hiranyakas.

The inscriptions give us information about some individuals and members of some feudatory families who were related to the royal house and who held important positions in the administration of the kingdom. They included the following : 
 (1) Mahnsenapati, Mahatalavara Skandasri of the Pukiya family. 
He was the husband of Santisri, sister of King Santamula I
(2) Mahasenapati, Mahatalavara, Mahadandanayaka Skandavisakha of the Dhanaka family. 
He was the husband of Atavi-Santisri the daughter of Santamula I and sister of Virapurushadatta I
(3) Mahasenapati, Mahatalavara, Vasishtiputra Skandasitakirana of the Hiranyaka clan. 
He was the husband of Chula-Santissrinika of the Kulahaka family. 
(4) Talavara Elisri, son of Gapdi, and grandson of Senapati Atlikki. (The name of his clan is not given).
(5) Mahatalavara Skandagopa of the Pushya- skandiya family.
He was the grandfather through his son Skanda- pula, of Kripanasri, the queen of Maharaja Ehavula Santamula I
(6) Talavara Uttara 
His daughter’s daughter was Kripanasri, the queen of Santamula I
(7) Mahasenapati Samtapula of the Kulahaka family. 
He is described as the subduer of the (enemy’s) camps, the destroyer of the arrogance of enemies and the captor of the wicked elephants of Olabaka. He was stationed at Mangalaranya
(8) Senapati Kumara Karadaru. 
He was probably a prince. But the details of his parentage are not known. 
(9) Permadi (details are not known) 
His soldier Sisaba, resident of Mahgalaranya was a member of the Maraba clan. His soldiers who were residents of Mahgalaranya are mentioned. 
(10) Rathika (i.e. governor) Bhakta (particulars of the clan to which he belonged are not known). 
(11) Mahasendpati, Talavara, Ary aka AryabhQti (the name of the family to which he belonged is not known).     
He was in ail probability related closiely to the royal family.
(12) Senapati Rataputa (the details of his descent are not known). 
He was residing at Mangalaranya. 
(13) Rathika (i.e. governor) [Haraka] (details of his descent are not known). 
He was residing at Mangalaranya. 

Another important inscription was found engraved on the stone floor of an apsidal temple situated on a rocky hill about two furlongs to the east of the Great Stupa, and known locally as Naharallabodu. This temple and a monastery standing alongside of if were built by a lady named Bodhisiri and dedicated to the fraternities of Ceylonese monks settled at Nagarjunakonda.

The dating is of the year - season - paksha - day method.

Mahatalavaras, or subordinate rulers, were employed by Ikṣvhaku rulers to administrate their territory, and members of this ruling class married into the Ikṣhvaku royal family.

208 AD - 253 AD : Vasithiputra Sri Santamula (Santamula I)
Sisters : Chamitisri, Hammasiri
He is attested by the Rentala and Kesanapalli inscriptions. 
The Rentala inscription, dated to his 5th regnal year, calls him "Siri Cāṃtamūla" dated in the victorious year (vijayasamvacharra - 213 A.D) 5 (pachama), 1 Padhama 1 divasa 

The 4-line Kesanapalli inscription, dated to his 13th regnal year, and inscribed on the pillar of a Buddhist stupa, names him as the founder of the Ikshvaku dynasty, performed the "Asvamedha", "Agnihotra", "Agnistoma" and "Vajapeya" sacrifices. Santamula performed the Asvamedha sacrifices with a view to proclaiming their independent and imperial status. It had become a common practice among the rulers of the subsequent dynasties to perform the Asvamedha sacrifice in token of their declaration of independent status. From this fact, it can be inferred that it was Santamula I who first declared his independence and established the Ikshvaku dynasty. Santamula's mother was Vasisti, as evident from his name.

Adavi Chamtisiri, daughter of Santamula was given in marriage to Mahnsenapati Mahatalavara Mahadandanayaka Khamda-Visakhamnaka of the Dhanaka family.

Chamtisiri sister of Santamula married to  Mahnsenapati, Mahatalavara Skandasri/Kamdasiri’s of the Pukiya family.
253 AD - 278 AD : Virapurushadatta
Wife's : Mahadevi Bhatiidevi / Bappisri, Rudradhara-bhattarika
Daughter : Kodabalisiri
Virapurushadatta was the son and successor of Santamula I through his wife Madhari. 
Ayaka pillar found on the north side of the Mahachaitya at Nargarjunakonda in the regnal year 6 by by the Mahatalavan Santisri (Chatisri)

The importance of the Pukiyas is shown by the marriage of Camtisiri and Kamdasiri’s daughter Khamdasagarannaka to the king, he also married Bapasiri and Chathisiri who were his cross-cousins, daughters of Hammasiri or Hammasri, who was the sister of Siri Camtamala.

An inscription dated to the 20th regnal year of Virapurushadatta mentions Chamtamula's death, dated in the victorious year (vijayasamvacharra - 273 A.D) 1 Padhama 2 divasa. It is possible that Chamtamula lived up to this time, having given up the throne at an earlier date; alternatively, it is possible that the inscription merely commemorates his death anniversary.

Ruled for at least 24 years, as he is attested by an inscription dated to his 24th regnal year. He was the son and successor of Santamula through his wife Madhari and married three daughters of his paternal aunts (Chamtasri and Hammasri).

Madhariputra Srivira- purushadatta followed the Brahmanical faith in the early period of his reign and during the later years he patronized Buddhism. Almost all the royal ladies were Buddhists. An aunt of Virapurisadata Chamtasri built a big Stupa at Nagarjunikonda. Her example was followed by other women of the royal family. The mahisi Mahavallabhika Yakhilinika was another of his queens and her name suggests that she probably came from the family of some ruler in northern Maharashtra. (Another
of his queens was Rudradharabhattarika who is referred to as the daughter of the maharaja of Ujjain. But none of these queens was the mother of the next king, Ehuvula Camtamula. His mother was a Vasisti and is referred to as mahadevi Bhattideva, and her genealogy is not known.

He also married Rudradhara-bhattarika, the daughter of the ruler of Ujjain (Uj(e)nika mahara(ja) balika), possibly the Indo-Scythian Western Kshatrapa king Rudrasena II (256 A.D -278 A.D)

The Saka-Ikshvaku marriage was undoubtedly of some political significance. It may have checked the advance of Abhiras into Eastern Deccan.

By the great village chief, the great talavara, the great commander, Sivaseba of the Peribidehas of the Kuasika gotra this image of lord Astbhujasvamin, made from udumbara wood, which had never been moved from Sanjayapuri from its place, by the kings Saka Rudradaman of Avanti and Visnurudra Sivalanda Sataakrni of Vanavasa has been installed on Sedagiri. 

The engraver is Vardhamanaka belonging to sembaka family Suryavamsi reads last line as Abhira Samvat 100, 303 AD. Sarma reads last line as 47 year Rksadesa/kalacuri-ceda era 295 AD

The Ikshvaku kingdom seems to have suffered multiple foreign invasions during Ehuvala's reign. The Sarvadeva temple inscription credits his commander Anikke with victories on the battlefield. The memorial pillar of his general Mahasenapati Chamtapula, a Kulahaka chief, also alludes to battle victories.

278 AD: Astbhujasvamin Nagajunakonda Inscription
variously read as 9, 20, 30 of Abhira King Vasisthiputra Vasusena (c.248 A.D - c. 280 A.D) the Abhira fortnight 6 of the rainy season 2 day 1 which is 257, 268 or 278 

278 AD  - 302 A.D : Ehuvula Santamula (Santamula II) 
Santamula II was the son and successor of Virapurushadatta. The most famous lksuvaku king was Ehavala Chamtamula (Chamtamula-II).Records dated second year of his reign are in Prakrit whereas those from Eleventh year are found in Sanskrit . Ruled for at least 24 years, and is attested by inscriptions dated to the regnal years 2, 6, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14,15,16, 18,19, 20 and 24. 
280 AD : Queen Bhartrideva, the daughter-in-law of Chantamula 1, the wife of Virapurushadatta and the mother- of Ehuvula Chantamula built monastery on the 10th day in the 4th fortnight in the 2nd regnal year of Ehuvula Chantamula.

Mahadevi Khaitduvula,  is the wife of Maharaja Ehavala Chantamula.

289 AD : Nagarjunakonda Inscription by Ehuvla Canatamula, who is known to have married a princess from the family of Kshatrapas of Ujjayini it is dated regnal year 11 Magha suklapaksha 11.

289 AD : The Kottampalugu inscription, dated 11th year of king Ehuvula Camtamula II records the construction of a vihara of Kodabalisiri (Kundavallisri), Mahadevi of the Maharaja of Banavasaka daughter of Virapurushadatta.

His reign witnessed the completion of a Devi Vihara, the Sihala Vihara, a convent founded for the accommodation of Sinhalese monks, and the Chaitya-ghara (Chaitya hall) dedicated to the fraternities (Theriyas) of Tambapanni(Ceylon). Ceylonese Buddhism was in close touch with Andhra. The sculptures of Nagarjunakonda, which includelarge figures of Buddha, show decided traces of Greek influence and Mahayana tendencies.

The Ikshvaku kingdom reached its zenith during his reign.Several Hindu and Buddhist shrines were constructed during his reign. His Patagandigudem inscription is the oldest known copper-plate charter from the Indian subcontinent.

Hariti-putra Virapurushadatta, the son of Ehuvala and queen Kapanashri (Kapanaśrī), bore the titles of an heir apparent: Maharaja Kumara and Mahasenapati. However, he did not ascend the throne, probably because he died before his father. 

Ehuvala was succeeded by Rudrapurushadatta, who was his son from Vammabhatta, the daughter of a Mahakshatrapa (the Western Kshatrapa ruler).

The Shakas (the Western Kshatrapas) appear to have greatly influenced the Ikshvaku kingdom during Ehuvala's rule. Some of the inscriptions issued during this period use the Shaka title svamin for the king. An inscription to commemorate Vammabhatta, issued during the 11th regnal year of his son Rudrapurushadatta uses this title svamin for all the preceding kings.

Ehuvula Camtamula (II) had at least three queens. 
One of them is Kupanasiri of Pusyakandiya lineage.She is referred to in an inscription of her son Maharajakumara Vlrapurisadatta. Both her father's and mother's families carried the title of mahatalavara. Although she is not related to the Iksvakus, this marriage must have brought the Pusyakandiyas into an alliance with the ruling dynasty. 
Another queen is mahadevi Khaijduvula whose genealogy is not known. 
The third queen is Mahadevi Siri Vammabhatta of the Brhatpalayana gotra. This queen is a daughter of Mahakhatapa and gives us a second instance of a marriage alliance with the Kshatrapas of western India. The Ksatrapas are, however, not known to have used Brahmanical gotra names like Brhatpalayana. Unless this is an exception, we come to a second possibility: that is Vammabhatta retained her mother's gotra.

Hariti-putra Virapurushadatta, the son of Ehuvala and queen Kapanashri bore the title Maharaja but could not ascend the throne, as he died before his father. Ehuvala was succeeded by Rudrapurushadatta, who was his son from Vammabhatta, the daughter of a Mahakshatrapa.

302 AD - 320 AD : Rudrapurushadatta 
was the name of an Ikshvaku ruler found in inscriptions from Gurajala in Guntur districts of Andhra Pradesh. He could have been a son of Ehuvula Santamula. Rudrapurushadatta ruled for more than 18 years. He was probably the last important ruler of the Andhra Ikshvaku family. After him there were three more unknown rulers according to the Puranas. 

Ikshvaku inscription was found in Phanigiri on a pillar in Sanskrit and Prakrit languages and Brahmi characters. It belongs to Ikshvaku king Rudrapurusha-datta and was issued in his 18th regnal year. The inscription contains four verses in adoration of Lord Buddha.

“The discovery of this inscription is important for the history of Ikshvaku dynasty, as the regnal year mentioned in this inscription extends the reigning period of the king by seven years, from 11 to 18. This inscription records the erection of a pillar containing the Dharmachakra by the chief physician (aggra-bhishaja) of the king.

The last of the Ikshvaku kings and Chutus were probably overthrown by Pallava ruler Simhavarman I and Pallava Siva Skanda Varman around 320 A.D

Pallava prince Chutu ruler Siva Skanda Varman son of Simhavarman married daughter of Skandanaga and might have inherited the kingdom after his death.