Bahmani Kingdom

1350 AD – 1518 AD : Bahmani Sultanate / Kingdom (1347 AD - 1527 AD)
Founder : Zafar Khan or Hasan Gangu or Allauddin Hassan or Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah
Capitals : Kalaburgi /Aḥsanabad now Gulbarga (1347–1425), Muhammadabad now Bidar (1425–1527)
Religion: Sunni Islam
Languages : Persian, Marathi, Deccani Urdu, Telugu, Kannada

Hassan Gangu founded the Bahmani Kingdom. Allauddin Hassan was born in 1290 A.D. into the noble family of Ghor. Political turmoils ruined the family, which forced him to go to Multan. From Multan he came to Delhi where on the banks of the Yamuna he was met by a brahmin astrologer, Gango Pandit, who invited him to be his guest. Gango Pandit,to support Hassan gave him a piece of land, a pair of oxen and two labourers to assist him. While working in the fields one day, Hassan discovered a treasure and informed the Pandit immediately,. The Pandit, a royal astrologer, who was close to Mohammed Bin Tughlak,the heir prince,was impressed by Hassan’s honesty and informed him about this incident. Tughlak, in turn, informed his father, the king, Ghyas Uddin Tughlak (1320−1325 A.D.). The king immediately made him an officer, putting him in charge of one-hundred horses

Hassan adapted Gango’s name out of gratefulness since the Pandit supported him in his hard times.Their friendship continued and turned out to be a legend in the history of Hindu- Muslim relationship.

In 1339, Zafar Khan participated in an uprising against the Tughluqs. This turned out unsuccessful; he and his allies were exiled to Afghanistan the same year. 

1346 : He managed to return to the Deccan, and in 1346 he participated in a siege of Gulbarga, at the time under Tughluq control. The siege proved successful. He was made a governor. Zafar Khan rose to power during the Rebellion of Ismail Mukh

In 1347 he was made commander of an army in Daulatabad. On 3 August 1347, the Afghan noble Nasir-ud-Din Ismail Shah, also known as Ismail Mukh, whom the rebel amirs of the Deccan placed on the throne of Daulatabad in 1345 and abdicated in favor of Zafar Khan, resulting the establishment of the Bahmani Kingdom with its headquarters at Hasanabad (Gulbarga)

He gave Ismail Mukh a jagir near Jamkhandi and later conferred to him the highest title of his kingdom, Amir-ul-Umara. But Narayana, a local Hindu chieftain still succeeded in turning Ismail against Bahman Shah for a short period before he poisoned Ismail.

1350 - Feb 11, 1358 A.D : Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah (Aug 3, 1347 to Feb 11, 1358)
The new King ruled from Friday Aug 3, 1347 to Feb 11, 1358, who was crowned in the mosque of Qtub-ud-din Mubarak Shah Khalji at Daulatabad. According to one historian Hasan was the nephew of Malik Hizhbar-ud-din entitled Zafar Khan' Alai, who was killed in 1298 AD when Hasan was only 6 years old.
The first act of the new king was to transfer his title of Zafar Khan to prince Muhammad. King adopted the title of Bahman. He sent Qutbul Mulk who conquered Kotgir, Maram, Mahendri and Akkal Kot. Qir Khan was sent to conquer Kalyan. After the news of this great victory of Kalyan, King renamed Daulatabad to Fatahabad.
Sikandar was send to Malkher which was held by the Hindu Zamindars who opposed first but subdued later. Quir Khan revolted and was beheaded by the king. King renamed Gulbarga as Ahsanabad and made it the capital of Deccan.

1350 : Bahman Shah led his first campaign against Warangal in 1350 and forced its ruler Kapaya Nayaka to cede to him the fortress of Kaulas, who entered into treaty and became friend of Sikandar and loyal to the King.

His kingdom was divided into four provinces and he appointed a governor for each province. During his reign Hasan fought many wars with Vijayanagara. By the time of his death the kingdom stretched from north to south from the Wainganga River to Krishna and east to west from Bhongir to Daulatabad.

The King died on Rabi-ul-awwal 1,  Feb 11, 1358 at the age of 67.

11th February 1358 to 21st April 1375 A.D : Muhammad Shah-I
Ruled from 11th February 1358 to 21st April 1375. He is better known as organizer of Bahmani Kingdom and founder of its institutions. 

March 23, 1363 : His attack on Warangal in 1363 brought him a large indemnity, including the important fortress of Golkonda and his Silver throne from his father was replaced by the magnificent Takht-e-Firoza (Turquoise Throne) presented by Kapaya Nayak, which thereafter became the throne of the Bahmani kings.

In 1367, Bukka Raya I of Vijayanagara sacked the Mudkal fortress in the Tungabhadra doab. As revenge for this, the then Bahmani sultan, Mohammad Shah-I crossed the river and marched into Vijayanagara territories for the first time.

This was the first battle in India on records where both sides used artillery.
Long-drawn war with no result made them agree to a treaty to restore the old position of sharing the Tungabhadra doab.
It was agreed that since both kingdoms would remain neighbors for a long period of time, they’ll avoid cruelty in war henceforth.
In future wars, helpless and unarmed civilians were not to be slaughtered. This accord made warfare in southern India less inhumane.

The Bahmani sultanate entered into a treaty with Warangal as well.The Bahmani boundary was fixed at Golconda and did not encroach into Warangal territories.

This treaty lasted for 50 years and stopped the advance of Vijayanagara as well.

He constructed Jama Masjid in Gulbarga Fort and Shah Bazaar Masjid in Gulbarga town. 
Muhammad Shah-I died in April 21, 1375 AD from drinking too much.

21st April 1375 - 16th April 1378 A.D : Mujahid Shah
Mujahid Shah Bahmani ruled from  was the 3rd Sultan of the Bahmani sultanate. He was the son of Mohammed Shah I. Unlike his predecessors Mujahid only had a reign of 3 years as he was assassinated by his cousin Dawood Shah Bahmani after his unsuccessful campaign to Vijayanagara. 

Practically the whole of Mujahid's reign was concentrated on the campaign to Vijayanagar.
On 17 April 1378, The King reached the fort of Mudgal and crossed the Krishna for a fishing expedition, then the stage was set for the worst. Masud Khan, Son of Mubarak the royal betel leaf bearer whom Mujahid broke his collar bone when he was a crown prince and Daud Khan, whom the king reprimanded for his negligence towards his position during the military campaign conspired to kill him and on that day they assassinated him in his tent and Daud himself ascended the throne after his death.

April 16, 1378 - May 21, 1378 AD : Daud Shah I 
Immediately on Mujahid's murder Daud Shah proclaimed king of Deccan and all those present paid homage to him. It is said that Ruh Parwar Agha (Mujahid's sister) got Daud murdered through a royal slave Bakah while he was attending Friday prayer on 22nd of Muharram, 780 AH in great mosque of Gulbarga Fort.

May 21, 1378 - April 20, 1397 A.D : Muhammad Shah-ll
Ruh Parwar after taking revenge of her brother's death, blinded Sanjar ( S/o Daud I ). She put Muhammad II brother of Daud I on throne.

Muhammad Shah II's 19 year reign was one of the most peaceful period in the whole Bahmani history. Since he had no son so he adopted two sons Firoz Shah and Ahmad I of his uncle Ahmad Khan s/o Bahman Shah. But after the birth of Tahmatan Shah, Muhammad on his death bed wished that Ghiyasuddin Tahmatan Shah should succeed him and Firoz and Ahmad should pay homage to him.

He tried to put a stop to hostilities with his neighbours, the Raya of Vijayanagar, who, however, took advantage of the political troubles and consolidated his authority on the western coast including Goa. Muhammad married his two daughters to the two sons Firuz and Ahmad of his predecessor Daud.

Muhammad was essentially a man of culture. He patronized art and literature. He was himself a scholar of Persian and Arabic and many poets from Persia and Arabia flocked to his court. He established several schools for the education of the poor and the orphan.

They were spread all over Deccan particularly in the cities of Gulbarga, Bidar, Khandhar, Elichpur, Daulatabad, Choul and Dabul. He looked after the welfare of his subjects and when there was a famine in his kingdom he imported grain from Gujarat and Malwa.

Muhammad died of typhoid on 21th April 1397 A.D

April 20, 1397 - June 14, 1397 AD : GHIYAS-UD-DIN TAHMATAN SHAH
Muhammad's elder son Ghiyas-ud-din Tahmatan Shah succeeded to the throne without any trouble. Taghalchin ( Turkish slave ) who wanted to be the Prime Minister arranged a big feast at which king was also invited. Taghalchin blinded the king on 17th Ramadan, 799 AH and imprisoned him at Sagar and his step brother Shams-ud-din Daud II was put on the throne. 

June 14, 1397 AD - Nov 15, 1397 AD : SHAMS-UD-DIN DAUD SHAH II
The first thing the boy king was made to do was to promote Taghalchin to be the Malik Naib and Mir Jumla of the kingdom. The manumitted slave girl who was Shamsuddin's mother was now raised to the rank and title of Makhduma-i-Jahan (Dowager Queen). 

Taghalchin tried to persuade Shamsuddin to imprison Firoz and Ahmad and asked king's mother to have them done to death. On hearing of the conspiracy the two brothers fled to Sagar. Firoz proclaimed himself king making his younger brother Ahmad Khan Amir-ul-umra, Mir Fazlil-lah Inju Wakil (Prime Minister). He had the blind boy Ghiyasuddin Tahmatan with him. He directly attacked into the Darbar Hall Taghalchin and his son was killed Daud II was blinded and allowed to move Mecca with his mother on 23rd Safar, 800 AH. Shamsuddin Daud II died in 816 AH / 1414 AD at Mecca.

Nov 16, 1397 - Sep 22, 1422 A.D : Feroz Shah Bahmani or TAJ-UD-DIN FIROZ SHAH
Firoz Shah was one of the most learned of Indian sovereigns. He was a good calligrapher and poet (poetic name Uruji or Firozi). Among other public works he under took the construction of an Observatory on the chain of hills near Daulatabad called Balaghat in 810 which could not be completed due to his death.

He tamed prince Bukka and Harihara of Vijayanagar and Narasingha of Kherla in battle.
Firoz's army tried to kill Ahmad Khan ( brother of Firoz ) but defeated in battle fought cleverly by Ahmad. Gates of the city was opened for Ahmad on 5th of Shawwal, 825 AH and he was taken to dying king Firoz. Firoz died on 11th of Shawwal, 825 AH / Sep 28, 1422.

1407 : Defeated the Vijayanagar ruler Deva Raya I (1406-22) in 1407. He had to give his daughter in marriage to Firoz Shah.

Sep 22, 1422 - Apr 17, 1436 A.D : Ahmad Shah I or SHIHAB-UD-DIN AHMAD I
1429 : In the year 1429 Ahmed Shah al wali shifted capital city from Gulbarga to Bidar.
At the begening of his reign he suffered the shock of the death of Hazrat Khwaja Syed Muhammad Gesu Draz. He decided and shifted his capital from Gulbarga to Bidar between 827-830 AH. He made Khalaf Hasan Basri as his Wakil-e-Saltanate (Prime Minister).
He constructed the Tomb of Gesu Daraz at Gulbarga any buidings at Bidar.
Ahmad Shah attacked Vijayanagar and over powered Vijayaraya I. 

In the last year of his reign he appointed his eldest son Ala-ud-din Zafar Khan to be his heir, giving him the full charge of kingdom. 

King died on 29th of Ramadan, 839 AH after a short ilness.

Apr 17, 1436 - May 6, 1458 : Ahmad Shah II or ALA-UD-DIN AHMAD II
Ahmad I had been very successful as a king and when he died he was popular even to the extent of being regarded as a saint. His son Zafar Khan who asumed the title of Ahmad on his accession. 
He gave preference to newcomers from outside over the old in his cabinet. This created a great cleavage between them and the Dakhnis (old comers). 
He married the daughter of Raja of Sangmeswar and gave her the title of Zeba Chehra apart from the daughter of Nasir Khan Faruqi of Khandesh Agha Zainab.
There became two party, aparently the old-comers and the new-comers. 
King died early due to his wound in his shin (front of lower leg)

May 7, 1458 - Sep 4, 1461 A.D : ALA-UD-DIN HUMAYUN SHAH
S/o Ahmad Shah II
Ahmad Shah II had nominated his eldest son Humayun heir to his throne. King made Khwaja Mahmud Gawan, Malik-ut-tujjar, trafdar of Bijapur and Wakil-e-Sultunate giving him full control of military matters. Humayun was a very short tempered and cruel man. He made his own cousin Sikandar Khan as Sipahsalar. Sikandar became rebellion and was crushed to death with the help of Mahmud Gawan. Humayun died on 28th Zi-Qada 865 AH.

Sep 4, 1461 - Jul 30, 1463 A.D : NIZAM-UD-DIN AHMAD III
S/o Humayun Shah
On Humayun's death his son Ahmad succeeded to the throne as Nizam-ud-din Ahmad III at the age of 8. He was escorted to the throne by Shah Muhib-ul-la and Syed-us-Sadat Syed Hanif. Late king had nominated a council of Regency constituting of Khwaja-e-Jahan Turk, Mahmud Gawan with the Dowager Queen Makhduma-e-Jahan Nargis Begum. Master mind which ruled the country during the short reign of Ahmad Shah III was that of the great queen. All the political prisoners of Humayun period were released. Ahmad III died on the very night of his marriage on 13th Zi-Qada and was succeeded by his younger brother Muhammad Khan as Shams-ud-din Muhammad Shah III.

Jul 30, 1463 - Mar 26, 1482 A.D : Muhammad Shah-lll
Shamsuddin Muhammad was between 9 and 10 years when he succeeded his elder brother. He was escorted to the Turquoise Throne by Shah Mohib-ul-lah (who was released by his captor Mahmud Khalji of Malwa) and Syed Hanif. Nizam-ul-mulk murdered Khwaja-e-Jahan Turk (one of the member of the three party committee of Regency after the death of Humayun ) ) at the instance of Queen in the presence of boy king in 870 AH.
Mohammad Shah III got married at the age of 14 years. Dowager Queen retired from active role. 

1463 A.D: Malik-ut-tujjar Mahmud Gawan was made Prime Minister. The Prime Minister ship of Mahmud Gawan saw the Bahmani State attaining high unequalled in the whole of its history. During this period Parenda Fort, Great College of Bidar and Madarsa at Bidar. Kherla was besieged in 872 AH. Kapileswar of Orissa was defeated in 1470 AD. Goa was annexed on 20th of Shaban 876 AH. Queen Dowager died in 877 AH.

Boundaries of Bahmani Kingdom now touching the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Arabian Sea in the west. Mahmud Gawan was one of the first ministers in Medieval India to order a systematic measurement of land, fixing the boundaries of villages and towns and making a thorough enquiry into the assessment of revenue.

Mar 12, 1481 A.D : King annexed Kanchi on 1st Muharram, 886 AH. This was the southern most point ever reached by Bahmani. Nobles conspired against Khwaja Mahmud Gawan and prepared a false paper on behalf of Khwaja saying he wants Deccan to be partitioned between him and Purushottum of Orissa. King sentenced Khwaja to death on 5th Safar 886 AH at the age of 73. Later King came to know that Khwaja was innocent. He appointed his son Mahmud as his heir. 

The death of this able statesman was soon followed by discontent and disturbance among his nobles. Bahadur Mulk Gilani, the son of the Bahmani governor of Goa, was among the first to rebel. 

Muhammad Shah-III died in 1482 

Malik Hasan Nizam-Ul-Mulk  Governor of Telangana
Mar 26, 1482 - Dec 27, 1518 AD : Mahmood Shah Bahmani II
The long reign of Mahmud Shah Bahmani, was a period of gradual weakening of the state. He ascended the throne at the age of 12 years, when new-comers had been over thrown. New Regency was formed with Queen as president. Qasim Barid was entitled with Barid-ul-mumalik.

We first hear of Qasim entitled Barid-ul-mamalik at the time of the coronation of Sihabuddin Mahmud Bahamani after the death of Muhammad III. He was a Turk. For selfish reasons he allied himself to the faction headed by Malik Naib Nizam-ul-mulk. The coronation of the Sultan was followed by a ruthless massacre of the foreigners in Bidar leaving Nizam-ul-mulk in supreme command. For the help rendered by Qasim to Nizam-ul-mulk, he was made the Kotval of the city of Bidar. 

Nizam-ul-mulk, Qasim Barid and Imad-ul-mulk formed the triumvirate and carried on the administration of the kingdom for four years.

King began to indulge in wine women and song and spent so much money that he had to extract many jewels from the Turquoise throne at the instigation of Qasim Barid. Qasim Barid forced Mahmud to make Prime Minister of the kingdom in 897 AH. Malik Ahmad Nizamul-mulk revolted and made a beautiful palace making it the center of his newly created capital, which he named after himself, Ahmadnagar in 900 AH. 

1486 AD : Abdullah Adil Khan Deccani or Dakhani
1486 AD - 1495 AD : Qutb-Ul-Mulk Dakhani 
After the death of Adil Khan Dakhani Qawam ul Mulk invaded warangal Nizam-ul-Mulk marched on Warangal and Qawam ul Mulk the younger retreated to Rajahmundry

1495 AD - 1518 AD : Qutbul-Mulk was appointed as the Governor of Tilangana in 901 AH /1495-96 AD who controlled over Warangal, Rachakonda, Devarakonda and Koilkonda. 

Charikonda in Kadthal mandal records the gift of one putti of land behind Gavurasamudra tank in Charikonda to Bommaji Tippaji by Anzam Ali Khan, probably a provincial officer, administering under Shahbuddin Mahammad (1482-1518 CE) of Bahamani sultanate

Qasim Barid died in 910 AH and was succeeded byhis son Amir Barid. Ahmad Nizam died in 914 AH and succeeded by his son Burhan. Sultan died on 24th Zil-hij 924 AH.

1509 Dony Defensive. In 1509, the forces of Krishnadevaraya of Vijayanagara (1509-1529) crushed Sultan Mahmood’s army. He then defeated and killed Yusuf Adil Shah, the founder of the Adil Shahi dynasty, and annexed the Raichur Doab. He brought Bidar, Gulbarga, and Bijapur into the fold of the Vijayanagar Empire, and his prime minister Timmarusu, whom he regarded as a father figure, defeated Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk, the founder of Qutb Shahi dynasty and ruler of Golconda.

Sultanate disintegrated after losing a battle to Krishnadevaraya and Bahmani Kingdom disintegrated into five kingdoms : Bijapur, Ahmadnagar, Berar, Golkonda and Bidar.

1510 Kovelaconda Counteroffensive. Krishnadev launched a counteroffensive, forcing the Sultan to make a stand at Kovelaconda. In this battle, according to R.C. Majumdar an even more important one that Dony, Yusuf Adil Shahi of Bijapur was killed, and so ended one of the 4 strategic threats to Vijaynagar.

1512 Gulbarga Offensive. Bijapur fell into chaos on Yusuf Adil Shahi's death, giving Krishnadeva the opening he needed to weaken the Bahmani coalition. He realized that as long as the coalition was unified, at least vis-à-vis Vijaynagar, his nation's security was in danger.

Krishnadev first captured Raichur, then Gulbarga, defeating Barid-i-Mamalik, the titular head of the Bahmani Sultanate. Barid managed to get away to Bidar, pursued by Krishnadev.

Barid was defeated a second time, as Bidar, the Bahmani capital, fell. In a master-stroke of divide-and-rule diplomacy, Krishnadev cunningly restored the Bahmani Sultan to his throne, creating discord and suspicion in the ranks of the coalition.

Thus ended the second strategic threat to Vijaynagar. Krishnadeva was now free to deal with the internal rebellions.

Sultan Quli Khawas Khan Hamdani was the governor of Golkonda and and was awarded the title Qutb-ul-Mulk (Pillar of the Realm) as military chief. He declared the independence of Golconda, after the disintegration of the Bahmani Kingdom into the five Deccan sultanates. Soon after, he declared independence from the Bahmani Sultanate, took the title Qutub Shah, and established the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda (1518-1687 AD)

1518 : While Krishnadevaraya was fighting the ruler of Odisha. He defeated Sitapati Raju (known as Shitab Khan), the ruler of Khammam, and captured the fort. Sitapati Raju (known as Shitab Khan) 1503 AD - 1518 AD ruled from Rachakonda(Nalgonda), Warangal and Khammam forts.

He forced Jeypore's ruler Vishwanath Dev Gajapati to surrender all the territories between the mouths of Krishna and Godavari rivers. He was able to occupy Eluru, Rajamundry and Machilipatnam extending his rule to Coastal Andhra. Sultan Quli's campaign against Krishnadevaraya continued until Timmarusu, the Prime Minister of Krishnadevaraya, defeated the Golconda army.

"A.H." is an abbreviation used in many Western languages for "after hegira," or its Latin form, "Anno Hegirae." Hijra era is the Muslim era dating from AD 622 when Prophet Muhammad was obliged to quit Mecca and flee for safety to Medina. Hijra means flight. It is a Lunar era of about 354 days, and so is 11 days shorter than the solar year. Just as the Gregorian calendar begins with the birth of Christ, the Islamic calendar begins with this pivotal event. The Islamic calendar, which follows a lunar cycle, begins at year 1 A.H.

The kingdom was divided into four administrative units called ‘taraf’ or provinces. These provinces were Daultabad, Bidar, Berar and Gulbarga
Every province was under a tarafdar who was also called a subedar
Some land was converted into Khalisa land from the jurisdiction of the tarafdar.( Khalisa land was that piece of land which was used to run expenses of the king and the royal household).
Nobles used to get their salary either in cash or in form of grant of land or ‘jagir’.

Military:Bahamani ruler depended for military support on his amirs
There were two groups in the ranks of amirs: One was the Deccanis who were immigrant Muslims and had been staying for a long time in the Deccan region. The other group was Afaquis or Pardesis who had recently come from Central Asia, Iran and Iraq.
Bahamanis were familiar with the use of gunpowder in warfare.

Persian, Arabic and Urdu literature flourished in this period.
Mohammad Gawan wrote poems in Persian language. Riyaz-ul-Insha, Manazir-ul-insha are his works.
A new dialect called “Dakhini urdu “ became popular during this time.
The famous sufi saint of Gulbarga, Khwaja Bande Nawaz Gesu Daraj wrote in this language.

They followed Indo-Islamic style of architecture with some improvisation. Local materials were used to construct the buildings.
The architecture was highly influenced by Persian architecture.
Some features of this style areTall minarets
Strong arches
Huge domes
Spacious Hazaras
Crescent moon at the top of the building