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Satavahana Dynasty

Circa 232 BC - 220 AD: Satavahana Dynasty and Pre-Satavahana Rulers came after Mauryan Empire

The various Puranas give different lists of the Satavahana rulers. The Matsya Purana states that 30 Andhra kings ruled for 460 years, but some of its manuscripts name only 19 kings whose reigns add up to 448.5 years. The Vayu Purana also mentions that there were 30 Andhra kings, but its various manuscripts name only 17, 18, and 19 kings respectively; the reigns add up to 272.5, 300, and 411 years respectively.

Excavations in kotilingala found punch marked coins of Pre Satavahana rulers Gobhada, Siri Kamvaya, Vayasiri and Samagopa

As a coin with the name ‘Simukha’ was found along with the coins of gobhadra and Samagopa, it is concluded that Simukha conquered their kingdom. That is why the upper layers at Kotilingala revealed the coins of Satavahanas.

Satavahanas were also called Salivahanas and Satakarnis. The coins issued by the Satavahana kings Simuka, Siri Satavahana, Satakani I, Satasiri, Satakani II, Vasittiputta Pulumayi, Vasittiputta Satakani and their governors were discovered in Kotilingala. These discoveries testify the fact that Telangana was the nucleus of Satavahana Empire.Though Satavahanas conquered the above kingdom, they left the kingdom of Maharathi dynasty at Nalgonda and Mahabubnagar districts region alone.

Maharathi Dynasty
Ruled regions of Khammam, Nalgonda and Mahabunagar. Declared independence after fall of Mauryan empire.When studies were conducted on the rulers of Nelakondapally, Khammam district, and some regions of Karnataka, the name of a dynasty called ‘Maharathi’ was revealed. Ashoka’s stone inscriptions called them as ‘Rathikas’. Historians opined that they were kings of subordinate kingdoms at different regions during the Mauryan rule. They declared independence after the fall of Mauryan empire in Telangana and Karnataka regions. They ruled some regions of Telangana and Karnataka until 100-150 A.D.
It is said that Simukha married a woman of Maharathi dynasty; and also his daughter-in-law was a Maharathi princess. That might be the reason for him to not to conquer their kingdom

Prakrit was the official language of communication used by the Satavahana Kings.
Literature like Gathasaptashati, painting like Ajanta flourished during the Satavahana rule.
The Satavahanas patronized Hinduism. They formed a cultural link and played a very important part in trade and the transfer of ideas and culture.

To establish their rule, they had to compete with the Sungas and after that the Kanvas of Magadha. Later, protected a huge part of India against foreign attackers like the Pahlavas, Yavanas and Sakas. The rulers of the Satavahana Dynasty, Sri Yajna Satakarni and Gautamiputra Satakarni defeated the overseas invaders such as the Western Kshatrapas and stopped their expansion. The Empire was split into smaller states in the 3rd century CE.

The Satavahanas ruled a powerful and large empire which withstood the attacks from Central Asia. Apart from their military power, their naval activity and commercialism helped them to establish Indian colonies in Southeast Asia. 
Vasisthiputra Sri Chimuka Satavahana (ca. 120-96 BCE?)
Kanaganahalli inscription of the 16th year of Simuka. 110 BCE.

Krsna (ca. 96-88 BCE?) 
Inscription of king Kanha in cave No.19, Nasik Caves.Inscription of Sramaņa, mahāmata (mahamätra) in the reign of “King Krsna of the Sātavāhana family" (sādavāhanakule kanhe rajini samanena mahāmāteņa lena karita. Ca. 90 BCE. 

Sri Satakami (ca. 88-42 BCE?) 
Chandankheda seal of Satakarni, year 30.  Ca. 60 BCE. 
Sanchi inscription of the time of Satakarni. Records the donation of the south gate (torana) at Sanchi by Vasisthiputra Ananda, the foreman of artists for King Sri Satakami (raño sirisätakanisa avesanisa väsithiputasa anamdasa danam). Ca. 60 BCE. 
The Naneghat inscription describes the achievements of the ruler Satakarni - I. Devi Naganika was the widow of one of the greatest kings of the early Satavahana king, Satakarni-I.   Ca. 40 BCE. 
Naneghat statue-gallery label inscriptions. Reading: rāya simuka sātavāhano sirimato, devi-nāyanikaya raño ca siri-sátakanino, kumāro bhāya ..., mahārathi tranakayiro, kumāro hakusiri, kumāro sātavāhano. Ca. 40 BCE.

Gautamiputra Sri Satakami (ca. 60-84 CE) 
Karle inscription of Gautamiputra Sri Sätakami (?), year 18 (?). Grant of the village Karajaka to the Mahāsamghika monks at Valūraka . Ca. 78 CE. 
Nasik inscription of Gautamiputra Sri Satakarni, year 18. Regranting of a village once owned by Uşavadāta to the monks at Triraśmi (Pāņdulena). Ca. 78 CE. 
Nasik inscription of Gautamiputra Sri Satakarni, year 24. Instead of the village granted in (9), which did not generate any income, the monks at Tiranhu (Pandulena) are granted a new piece of land. Issued jointly with Gautamiputra Satakarni's mother, Gautami Balasri. Ca. 84 CE. 

Vāsişthīputra Sri Puļumāvi (ca. 84-119 CE) 
Sannati prasasti of Gautamiputra Sri Satakarni. Probably earlier than the Nāsik prasasti reading: [s]iri sátakanisa samuditabalavahanasa abhagavahanasa sätavahanasa benäkata-vidabha-uparigiräparanta-asaka-müdakasa jayavi-cakora-vala-rathadakhina (path ... su]súsakasa pitu-satu-vera-niyatakasa aneka-sam)gamavijita-vijayasa khakharata-kula-ghātakasa aneka-rāja-mathaka-patigahitasa padana-säsanasa ekakusasa eka-dhanudha[ dharasa]. "KI restores the metro nymic of the king as väsethi, although I would expect gotami. Ca. 85-100 CE. 
Sannati prasasti [of Gautamiputra Sri Sätakarni).. This inscription is in Sanskrit and in the vasantatilaka meter. Probably belongs with the preceding inscription (11). Ca. 85-100 CE.
Näsik inscription of the time of Vasisthiputra Sri Pulumavi, year 2.  Records a private donation. Note the title raño vāsithiputasa sāmisiripulumaisa. Ca. 86 CE. 
Karle inscription of the time of Vāsişthiputra Sri Puumavi (?), year 5. Records a private donation. Ca. 88 CE. 
Nasik inscription of Vasisthiputra Sri Pulumavi, year 6.. Ca. 89 CE. 
Myākadoni inscription of (Vasisthiputra) Sri Puumavi, year 6. Excavation of a tank by Samba in a locale called sätavāhanihāra. Note that the king is called rano sātavāhananam (si) ripulum. Ca. 90 CE. 
Karle inscription of the time of Vasişthiputra Sri Pulumavi, year 7. Records the donation of a village to the monks at Valūraka (Kärle) by Mahāratthi Väsişthiputra Somadeva, son of Mahārathi Kausikiputra Mitradeva. Ca. 91 CE. 
Nasik inscription of Väsisthiputra Sri Pulumävi, year 19 = Gautami Balasri's praśasti of Gautamiputra Sri Satakarņi. Ca. 103 CE. 
Nasik inscription of Vasisthiputra Sri Pulumavi, years 19 and 22.  Ca. 97-100 CE. Grant of another village for the upkeep of the Queen's Cave, in place of the village mentioned in (18). Ca. 103
and 106 CE. 
Karle inscription of the time of Vasisthiputra Sri Pulumavi, year 24.. Private donation; the donors have Iranian names (Harapharana and Setapharana). Ca. 108 CE. 
Kanaganahalli inscription of the time of Vāsişthiputra Sri Puļumāvi, year 35. Records a private donation. Ca. 119 CE. 
Dharanikota inscription of the time of (Vasisthiputra Sri Pulumavi], [year 35). Ca. 119 CE. 
Väsana inscription of Vasisthiputra Sri Pulumāvi. Ca. 84-119 CE. 
Amaravati inscription of the time of Vasisthiputra Sri Pulumavi.. Private donation. The king is referred to with the Saka title svāmi (ra[ño] vā[ sithi]puta [sa] [sä]mi-siri-pulumävisa). This is among the earliest of the Sātavāhana inscriptions from coastal Andhra. Ca. 84-119 CE.

Väsişthiputra Sri Satakarņi (ca. 119-148 CE) 
Kanaganahalli label inscriptions. The historical kings mentioned are Asoka (räyä asoko); Chimuka Sātavahana (raja siri chimuka sådavähano); Sātakami (raya sätakansi mahāce) - (t)[i]yasa r(u)pāmayāni payumāni on(o)yeti “King Satakami donates silver lotus flowers to the Great Caitya"); Mantalaka (raya matalako); Sundara Satakami (rāyā sudara sätakani:); Puļumāvi (rāya pulumāvi ajayatasa ujeni deti). These are all inscribed on the upper drum (medhi), which was first encased during the reign of Chimuka Satavahana (see [1]) and renovated during the reign of Väsişthiputra Sri Satakarņi. Ca. 120 CE. 
Kanaganahalli inscription of the time of Vasisthiputra Sri Satakarni, year 6.. Records a donation by a caravan trader. Ca. 124 CE. 
Sannati inscription of the time of Vasisthiputra Sri Satakami. Ca. 119-148 CE. 
Känheri inscription of Vāsisthiputra Sri Sätakarni. This is one of the only Sanskrit inscriptions of the Sātavāhanas , and records the donation of a cistern by a minister of the queen of Vāsişthiputra Sri Satakarņi, who is also the daughter of the Mahäkşatrapa Ru (dradāman). Since Rudradāman bears the title Mahäkșatrapa, this must date to after (when Rudradāman still had the lower title Kșatrapa). Ca. 141-148 CE.

Vāsişthiputra Sivasri Puļumāvi (ca. 148-156 CE) 
Sannati inscription of the time of Vasişthīputra Sivasri Pulumāvi. 148-156 CE. 
Banavāsi inscription of Vasisthiputra Sivasri Pulumävi This is a memorial stone (chaa-pattharo) to the chief queen of Vasişthiputra Sivasri Puļumāvi (raño vasithiputasa sivasiri-pulumävisa mahadeviya)

Vasisthiputra Sriskanda Satakarni (ca. 156-170 CE) 
Nāneghāt inscription of Vāsisthiputra Sriskanda Satakarni, year 13. Bhagavanlal read the name as Chatarapana; Mirashi suggests Sirikhada instead coins of Skanda Sātakami are known). Gupta suggests (unconvincingly) restoring arahaņa. Ca. 169 CE.

Gautamiputra Sriyajña Satakarni (ca. 171-199 CE)
Nasik inscription of the time of Gautamiputra Sriyaj na Satakarni, year 7. Donation of a cave begun by a monk Bopaki and completed by the Mahāsenapatini Vāsu. Ca. 178 CE.
Kanaganahalli inscription of the time of Gautamiputra Sriyajña Satakarni, year 10-19.. Ca. 181-190 CE. 
Kanaganahalli inscription of the time of Gautamiputra Sriyajña Satakarni, year 11.  Ca. 182 CE. 
Känheri inscription of the time of Gautamiputra Sriyajña Satakarni, year 16.. Donation and endow ment of a cave by a merchant layman. Ca. 187 CE. 
Chinaganjam inscription of Gautamiputra Sriyajña Satakarni, year 27. The king is called rano gotamiputasa araka-siri-yana-sātakanisa, perhaps employing the Tamil aracan as the equivalent of Sanskrit Ca. 198 
Amaravati inscription of the time of Gautamiputra Sriyajña Satakarni. This is one of the very few Sanskrit inscriptions from within the Satavahana empire. Ca. 171-199 CE. 
Kanheri inscription of the time of Gautamiputra Sriyajña Sätakarni. Donation of a cave. Uses the title sāmi-siri-yana. Ca. 171-199 CE. 

Gautamiputra Srivijaya Satakami (ca. 200-205 CE) 
Nagarjunakonda inscription of the time of Gautamiputra Srivijaya Sätakami, year 6. This is one of the earliest instances of writing double consonants (sätakannisa). Ca. 205 CE.

Vasisthiputra Sricanda Satakami (ca. 206-220 CE) 
Kanaganahalli inscription of the time of Vāsişthiputra Canda Satakami, year 11.  Ca. 216 CE. 
Kodavali inscription of the time of Vasisthiputra Sricanda Sväti, year 11 Donation of a minister. The reading of the inscription is very doubtful. Ca. 216 CE.

Mathariputra Sri Pulumavi (ca. 220-230 CE) 
Kanaganahalli inscription of the time of Māthariputra Sri Puļumāvi, year 10. 


Simuka (r. 228 – 205 BCE)
Simuka appears to have been a very shrewd politician. He realised that to overthrow the Kanvas was a difficult task and hence entered into an alliance with maharathi Tranakayira whose daughter was married to his son Satakarni. Tranakayira was a Naga, possibly, a vassal under the last Kanva ruler. The several servants combined together to overthrow the Kanva regime and the powerful among them ultimately won the crown. He is named as Balipuccha in some texts

Krishna (r. 205 – 187 BCE)
Krishna Brother of Simuka

Satakarni I (r. 187 – 177 BCE)
Satakarni I son of Simuka

Purnotsanga (r. 177 – 159 BCE)
Skandhastambhi (r. 159 – 141 BCE)
Satakarni II (r. 141 – 85 BCE)
After Satakarni-II,Satavahana Kings seemed to have left Kotalingala, Dhulikatta and Peddabunkur, but appeared to have stayed at Kondapur. 

Lambodara (r. 85 – 67 BCE)
Apilaka (r. 67 – 55 BCE)
Meghasvati (r. 55 – 37 BCE)
Svati (r. 37 – 19 BCE)
Skandasvati (r. 19 – 12 BCE)
Mrigendra Satakarni (r. 12 – 9 BCE)
Kunatala Satakarni (r. 9 – 1 BCE)
Satakarni III (r. 1 BCE-1 CE)
Pulumavi I (r. 1 – 36 CE)
Gaura Krishna (r. 36 – 61 CE)
Hāla (r. 61 – 66 CE)
Hala is mentioned by Vatsyayana in his Kamasutra and Rajasekhara in his Kavya Mimamsa. Hala patronises literature and the arts, and the Prakrit work, Saptasati, is ascribed to him. Gunadhya, the author of Brihat Katha, is his contemporary. As he is a patron of poets, he is known by the title 'Kavivatsala'. He marries a Ceylonese princess on the banks of the River Sapta-Godavari-Bhima.

Mandalaka aka Puttalaka or Pulumavi II (r. 69 – 71 CE)
Purindrasena (r. 71 – 76 CE)
Sundara Satakarni (r. 76 – 77 CE)
Chakora Satakarni (r. 77 – 78 CE)
Shivasvati (r. 78 – 106 CE)
Gautamiputra Satkarni (r. 106 – 130 CE)
Gautamiputra Satakarni defeated the Western Satrap ruler Nahapana, restored the status of his dynasty by recapturing a large part of the former dominions of the Satavahanas.
Gautamiputra was the first Satavahana ruler to issue the portrait-type coins. He was succeeded by his son, Vashishtiputra Pulumavi.

Vasisthiputra aka Pulumavi III (r. 130 – 158 CE)
Vashishtiputra Satakarni, Gautamiputra's brother, married the daughter of Rudradaman I of the Western Satraps dynasty. Around 150 CE, Rudradaman I, waged war against the Satavahanas. As a consequence of his victories, Rudradaman recaptured all the former territories previously controlled by Nahapana. Satavahanas were restricted to their original base in the Deccan and around Amaravati. 

Shiva Sri Satakarni (r. 158 – 165 CE)
Shivaskanda Satakarni (r. 165–172)
Sri Yajna Satakarni (r. 173 – 202 CE) 
Yajna Sri Satakarni, the last great king of this dynasty, recaptured their southern regions in western and central India. The Satavahanas regained some prosperity during the reign of Sri Yajna Satakarni but around the middle of the 3rd century, the dynasty ended.

Vijaya Satakarni (r. 202 – 208 CE)
Around 203 AD Abhiras captured parts of Western Deccan. Chebrolu inscription in Guntur, Andhra Pradesh of Satavahana king Vijaya issued in his 5th regnal year 207 A.D. is also the earliest datable Sanskrit inscription from South India so far.

Chandra Sri Satakarni (r. 208 – 211 CE)
Pulumavi IV (r. 211 – 218 CE)
Around 218 AD : Vashishthiputra Sri Santamula (Santamula I) founder of Ikshvakus and the general of Satavahanas declared his independence from Satavahanas by killing the last ruler Pulumavi IV.

Vassals of Satavahanas who replaced them
Ikshvakus  to the east
Abhiras to the west
Vakatakas
Pallavas of Kanchipuram.
Chutus of Banavasi in North Karnataka.
Western Satraps in the northwestern part of the kingdom.


Some Early Dynasties of South India By Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satavahana_dynasty
http://asiasworld.net/india/royal-dynasties-in-india/satavahana-dynasty/index.cfm

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