Kakatiya Dynasty

1158 AD - 1323 AD
Founder : Venna
Capitals : Anmakonda (Hanumakonda), Orugallu / Ekasilanagara (Warangal)
Languages : Telugu was the preferred language, Sanskrit, Kannada
Religion : Jainism, Hinduism (Saivism)
Royal Emblem : Garuda, Varaha 

c.870 AD - 995 AD is the first phase of Kakatiya Dynasty as vassals of Rashtrakuta Dynasty and ruled independently from 973 AD - 995 AD
c. 1000 - 1158 is the second phase and vassals of Western Chalukyas
1158 - 1323 is the independent rule.

The Kakatiya dynasty was an Indian dynasty that ruled most of eastern Deccan region comprising present day Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, and parts of eastern Karnataka and southern Odisha between 12th and 14th centuries.

Kakatiyas are descendants of Karikala Chola King of Durjaya clan, who initially started as vassals of the Chalukyas in India, and later emerged as a ruling dynasty, with their capital at Kakatipura (probably named after the village diety, Kakatamma) or present day Warangal, in the state of Telangana, India.

Kakatiyas were the devotees of Goddess Kakati, their ancestry has been traced to the Solar dynasty of the Ikshvaku kshatriyas.

A story in the Siddhesvara-charita states that Madhavavarman, an ancestor of the Kakatiyas, obtained military strength by the grace of goddess Padmakshi. Probably from Vishnukundin Dynasty

It is from the surname 'kakartya' of Gundana that we have derivatives like :- 'kakata', 'kakati', 'kaketi', 'kakita' etc...

The word 'kakati', undergoes Sanskritization to become 'Kooshmanda'. Amongst the yakshinis of jainism, 'Kooshmandini' is a synonym of 'Ambika Devi'. Goddess Kushmanda is also fourth form of Durga.

Dedicated to Goddess Padmavati, located on a hilltop in the heart of the town of Hanamakonda, Padmakshi Gutta

The Kakatiya period was rightly called the brightest period of the Telugu history. The entire Telugu speaking area was under the kings who spoke Telugu and encouraged Telugu. They established order throughout the strife torn land and the forts built by them played a dominant role in the defence of the realm. Hanumakonda and Gandikota among the 'giridurgas', Kandur and Narayanavanam among the 'vanadurgas', Divi and Kolanu among the 'jaladurgas', and Warangal and Dharanikota among the 'sthaladurgas' were reckoned as the most famous strongholds in the Kakatiya period. The administration of the kingdom was organized with accent on the military.

Though Saivism continued to be the religion of the masses, intellectuals favoured revival of Vedic rituals. They sought to reconcile the Vaishnavites and the Saivites through the worship of Harihara. Arts and literature found patrons in the Kakatiyas and their feudatories. Tikkana Somayaji, who adorned the court of the Telugu Chola ruler Manumasiddhi II, wrote the last 15 cantos of the Mahabharata which was lying unfinished. Sanskrit, which could not find a place in the Muslim-occupied north, received encouragement at the hands of the Kakatiyas. Prataparudra was himself a writer and he encouraged other literature. 

The Kakatiya dynasty expressed itself best through religious art. Kakatiya art preserved the balance between architecture and sculpture, that is, while valuing sculpture, it laid emphasis on architecture where due. The Kakatiya temples, dedicated mostly to Siva, reveal in their construction a happy blending of the styles of North India and South India which influenced the political life of the Deccan. Building temple and lake (an irrigation tank ) side by side was the tradition of the Kakatiya.

Motupalli port was famous for foreign trade during the period of Kakatiyas.

Ministers during the period of Kakatiyas were called as Tirthas.

Vidyanatha wrote Prataparudra Yashobhusanam.

Bayyaram Cheruvu inscription was issued by Mailamba.

Magallu inscription was issued by Danarnava. 

Achitendra was the author of Hanumakonda inscription. 

Rudradeva issued Hanumakonda inscription about the victories of Prolaraja II in 1163.

The gold coin during the period of Kakatiyas was called as Gadvanam.

The remains of immense irrigation tanks and channels show that the rulers of the country devoted great attention to the improvement of agriculture.

There was enormous accumulations of wealth, consisting of gold, precious stones (including Kohinoor diamond), and elephants. The people appear to have been brave, happy, and prosperous, and from west to east there were scattered about numerous holy shrines which brought together thousands of pilgrims. It was this wealth that attracted the cupidity of the Mahomedans. 

1149 AD: Tailapa-III or Kumara Tailapa was defeated by Kakatiya Prola II around 1149 AD.

1158 AD : The earliest extant record from Rudradeva's reign as sovereign power is the 1158 CE Daksharamam inscription issued by his minister Inangala Brammireddi. 

1163 AD Anumakonda inscription of Rudradeva alias Prataparudra I is another record that describes the Kakatiyas as a sovereign power.

Founder of the Kakatiya line. Mentioned in Bayyaram inscription.

Gunda I

Gunda II
The first three chiefs are known only due to references by later Kakatiyas. None of the events that took place under their reigns are known, as no contemporary records for these chiefs exist.

c.870 A.D - 895 A.D: Gunda III Son. Rashtrakuta vassal. 
895 A.D : As per the MASULIPATNAM PLATES of CHALUKYA BHIMA 1(892 - 922 A. D), IRIMARTIGANDA, the eldest son of Chalukya Bhima 1 killed a Rashtrakuta general named Dandena Gunda during one of the invasion. Gunda III dies fighting for his overlord, the Rashtrakuta king Krishna II (878-914).

c. 895 A.D - 940 A.D : Erra / Erriya Son. Rashtrakuta vassal. 
Ruled from Kakatipura. Erra is given the land of Kurravadi in Warangal, in repayment for the services of his father.

c. 940 A.D - 950 A.D : Betiya Son. Rashtrakuta vassal. Mentioned in the Mangallu grant. 

c. 950 A.D - c. 995 A.D : Gunda IV / Pindi Gunda Son. Rashtrakuta vassal.
956 AD : Mangallu, Nandigama Taluk, Krishna District. : Eastern Chalukya Amma II
The charter records the gift, at the instance of a feudatory chief named Kakatya Gundyana, of the village of Mangallu in favour of a Brahmana named Dommana. It is addressed by king Ammaraja II (Vijayaditya VI) to the householders headed by the Rashtrakutas of the Nätavadi district and the Mantrin, Purohita, Senapati, Yuvaraja and other members of the eighteen tirthas.

970 A.D : Gunda IV supplies help to Danarnava on behalf of his master, Krishna III, to help him set aside his brother, the Eastern Chalukyan king, Amma II, and occupy the throne of Vengi. As a result, Gunda is gifted with Natavadi / Manigallu as a token of gratitude. The Mangallu (of the Eastern Chalukyan king Danarnava (970 – 973 AD)) grant furnishes the genealogy of Kakatiya Guṇḍyana. According to this inscription, Betiya, Eriya, Rastrakuta and Gundiya Rastrakuta were the father, grandfather and great grandfather of Kakatiya Guṇḍyana respectively.  

973 A.D : Following the collapse of Rashtrakuta power in 973, Gunda IV became an independent chief. He took the opportunity to expand his fledgling dominions by attacking his neighbors to the southeast, the Mudigonda Chalukyas of the modern-day Khammam district. 

However, Gunda was eventually killed by one Viriyala Erra, who installed the Mudigonda Chalukya chief Bottu Beta as ruler of Koravi. It is likely that the general Viriyala Erra and the Mudigonda Chalukyas had the support of Tailapa II, the new Western Chalukya monarch who had replaced Rashtrakuta authority in the region.

Viriyala Dynasty
Mudigonda Chalukyas (850 AD - 1218 AD)
Vemulawada Chalukyas (641 AD - 973 AD)

c. 1000 AD - 1052 AD: Beta I / Garuda Beta
General : Recherla Brahma
According to the Guider epigraph, Beta was too young to rule when his father was killed. The Kakatiya family was in dire straits at this time, being deprived of their lands as well as an adult male head. They were saved from extinction by the grace of Kamavasani, the wife of Viriyala Erra. Kamavasani was most likely related to the Kakatiyas in some way, and she might also be identical with the figure of Kuntaladevi mentioned in the Siddheshvaracharitra, who is also credited with saving the Kakatiya family. 

Under Kamavasani’s guidance and protection, Beta eventually rose to become the ruler of Anumakonda under Western Chalukya suzerainty.

The Gudur inscription states that a person named Sura killed Kadaya-nayaka of Velpugonda (modern Jaffargadh 25 miles SE of Warangal); set up Ravva-nripa at Velpugonda; and obtained from him Mogadupalli, Botipadu, Mavidlu, and the friendship of Garuda-raja. This suggests that Sura also helped Beta I ("Garuda-raja"), although his relationship to Beta I, Kama-vasani, or Viriyala Erra is not clear from the inscription.

Beta was thus the first of his family to rule in this region, which would become the core territory of the Kakatiyas, and remain under their rule until the final demise of the dynasty.Garuda is a great warrior who probably joins the Western Chalukya armies of Someswara I in the Chola invasion of 1052. Along with his general, Recharla Bramha, he destroys the Chola armies (of King Rajadhiraja I) and enters the city of Kanchi. 

Sanigaram inscription is the earliest one to refer to Beta I's affiliation to Jainism . It states that he made gifts to the Juddhamalla Jinalaya . 

24th December, A.D. 1051 : Sanigaram, Siddipet District
Trailokyamalladeva and Beta I : This inscription is on a stone set up near the Bhimeswara temple. The record states that mahasamantha Kakatiya Beta`s Pergade Vaijaraja`s son Naranayya renovated the Duddhamalla Jainalaya of Sanagara (village) and endowed it with a ratna after obtaining of the consent of the local gamundas named Muppadayya and Punniraddi.

1052 AD - 1076 AD : Prola I (Arigajakesari)
General : Recherla Muccha
Prola subdues enemy chiefs (from Chakrakuta Bhadranga Purukuta in Bastar to Konkana Mandala) for his overlord Someswara I and his son Vikramaditya VI. For his services he receives Anumakonda (Hanumanakonda). Kesamudram Lake or Kesari Tatakam in Warangal is constructed during the reign of Prola I.

13th November, 1053 AD : Sanigaram, Karimnagar District. Trailokyamalladeva and Prolarasa-I 
This inscription is on a stone pillar in the field near the village. The record states that the king`s subordinate mahasamanta Kakatiya Polalarasar after informing the local gavundas, made a gift of twelve maneya of residential sites, a ratana, twenty mattars of black soil, twenty mattars of kesukadu and with the consent of Kateraddi and others of Bezavanka (village) gave one mattar of wetland to the god Mudhupisvara of Khandi Sanigara (village) installed by pergada Madhuvappayya.

The Kakatiya Prola mentioned here is obviously Prola I.

1076 AD - 1108 AD: Beta II (Tribhuvana Malla) 
Generals : Recherla Kata I, Malyala Danna Supported Chalukya Vikramaditya VI in his conflict against his brother, Somesvara II. When Vikramaditya won the Chalukya civil war and became king in 1076, he thus conferred on Beta the title of Vikrama-chakrin. Beta was also able to obtain Sabbinadu (Sabbi-1000) in the modern-day Karimnagar district from the Chalukya king. Besides this, not much else is known about this Kakatiya ruler. 

1079 AD : The earliest among the Kakatiya inscriptions is engraved on a boulder at Komarapalli, a suburb of Hanamkonda. The record, written in Telugu, is dated Saka 1001 (1079 A.D.), Siddharthin, and states that Vikrama Chakrin Mahamandalesvara Beta granted some land, free from all taxes, to the gods Prolesvara and Betesvara for a perpetual lamp. The first deity was apparently named after Prola who was the father of Beta II and the son of Beta I.

26th December, 1079 AD : This inscription is on a pillar lying by the side of the road to Kazipet, dated S. 1001, Siddharthi, Solar eclipse, (A.D. 1079, Dec. 26, Thursday). Records the gift of 12 manigas of ghee for a Nandadivipa to Prolesvara in the temple of Betesvara by Beta.

25th December, 1082 AD : Banjipet, Warangal District.
This inscription is on a pillar lying in the east of the village. Registers the gift of some land by Mahamaṇḍalesvara Kakatiya Betarasa to Vira Kamala-Jinalaya built by Mahamandalesvara Medarasa of Ugravadi, a subordinate of the Western Chalukya king Tribhuvanamalladeva (Vikramaditya VI). The inscription is dated S. 1004 Dundubhi, Pushya Su. 3, Adivara (A.D. 1082; December, 25, Sunday). Medarasa is said to belong to Vengonta kula of the lineage of Madhavavarman who had 8,000 elephants, 10 crores of horses and countless foot-soldiers. The inscription is written by Ayyupayya and Sridhara

Nov 24, 1090 AD : Kazipet, Warangal District - This inscription is in a stone pillar in Dargah. Dated S. 1012 Pramoda, Kartika ba. 15, Sunday, Solar eclipse (A.D. 1090, Nov. 24). Records the grant of a certain village as sarvamanya by king Dugga-Tribhuvana Malla son of Betarasa to the Kalamukha monk Ramesvara Pandita of Parvatavali the head of the famous Mallikarjuna silamatha of Sri Parvata. It also records the grant of one mana of oil everyday for nandadivige by the nakram of Anumakonda to the god Umamahesvara.

24th March, 1098 AD : Mittapalli, Saidapet Taluk, Medak -The inscription registers the gift of gadde land measuring two marttars and karamba land measuring 40 marttars, along with ratana and gana [oil mill] after making it free from all encumbrances to the god Somesvara in the agrahara village Mittapalli, towards the daily rites as well as repairs to the temple by Erapareddi, after washing the feet of Tarkavalapandita who was in the service of the temple. The village lies in Pulganuru-70. The said donor was in the service of Kakatiya Tribhuvana Malla Raja i.e., Beta II ruler of Anmakundapura.

1107 AD : Sanigaram  Inscription mentions Mahamandalesvara Kakatiya Beta II as his subordinate

1108 AD - 1116 AD : Durgaraja
Generals : Recherla Kata I, Malyala Danna Durgaraja began actively participating in the Kakatiya administration even before his father's death. We know this because the only inscription of Durgaraja is dated to 1098, while the last record of Beta II is dated to 1108. However, less than a decade after Beta II's death, another of his sons, Prola II, was in power. The Kotapalli epigraph states that Prola II offered asylum to his brother's son (i.e. the son of Durgaraja), which suggests that the reign of Durgaraja came to a sudden and violent end. It is quite likely that there was a power struggle between the two brothers Prola II and Durgaraja, and that Prola II himself put an end to Durgaraja's reign. However, respecting the fact that Durgaraja was still his brother, he offered protection for his son (Prola's nephew). Prola was firmly in power by 1116 as the head of the Kakatiyas.

1116 AD - 1158 AD : Prolla II Brother of Durgaraja. Son of Beta II
General : Recherla Kama Chamupati, Malyala Danna 

24 December, 1117 AD : Hanumakonda, Warangal District. Tribhuvanamalla [Vikramaditya VI] and Prola 
This inscription is on a slab fixed in the Museum. The inscription records the construction of the Kadalalaya basadi on the top of the hill by Mailama, the wife of Beta, the minister of Kakati Prola and the gift of two mattars of wet land below the bund of the tank built by her husband Betana-Pergade and two martars of the black soil on the west of the tank and six martars of uncultivated land for the daily worship, incense, lights and oblations in the temple and for the food, clothing etc., of the temple priest in the C.V. 42, Hevalambi, Paushya ba.15 Somavara, Uttarayana samkranti (Monday, 24th December, A.D. 1117). It starts with the prasasti of the Chalukya emperor Tribhuvanamalladēva, that is, Vikramaditya VI and introduces his subordinate Mahamandalesvara Kākati Betarasa, the lord of Anmakonda. His minister, the dandadhi-nayaka Valja, who is said to have induced his master to accompany him to the court of the Chalukya emperor and obtained as a favour from the latter Sabbi-nadu (one) thousand. To Valja-daṇḍadhinatha and his wife Yakamabbe was born Bēta the husband of the donor Mailama who became the minister of Kakati Prola.

It also records a subsidiary gift by Mahamandalesvara Medarasa of Ugravadi, who was born in the family of Madhavavarman, of 1 mattar of wetland at the head of the canal Kuchikere (tank) of Orumgallu included within his fief, and 10 mattars of other land in the same place.

Prola II married Muppamamba (alias Muppama), a sister of the Chalukya vassal Natavadi Durgga-raja, who held a fief near Inugurti (Inugurthy). He had five sons: Rudra-deva, Maha-deva, Harihara, Ganapati (not to be confused with his grandson), and Durgga-raja.

1136 AD :  Chalukyas lost dominance in Telangana region. As per Inscriptions in Hanumakonda Library. Established son of Gokarna on Throne. Prolla II is responsible for subduing the Telugu Cholas of Kandur who defeated King Govinda and gave his kingdom to Udayaditya.The Chodas of Kanduru were located south of the Kakatiya dominions. They ruled over the region of Kandurunadu, which comprises parts of modern-day Nalgonda and Mahbubnagar districts. They had two capitals, one at Koduru in the west, and another at Panugallu in the east. 

Defeated Medaraja and conquered Pulavasa desa or Polavasa from modern Polas, Jagityal district to Narsampet Warangal district.

The land which Prola acquired he conferred on one Gangaraja. This Ganjaraja built a temple for god Prasanna Kesava in Hanumakonda

He joined Jagadekamalla in his march against Gundaraja and Edaraja of Manthena Vishaya who were disregarding the kings sovereignty.
Paola II beheaded Gunda (the ruler of Mantrakuta - after having been made to suffer the ignominy of having his head shaved and his breast marked with a boar.) and put to fight Edaraja seizing Manthena on the Godavari.  

1137 AD : Defeated Kumara Tailapa.

1149 AD: Tailapa-III or Kumara Tailapa was defeated by Kakatiya Prola II around 1149 AD 

Defeated Jaggadeva of Polavasa who attacked Hanumakonda.

Defeated Chalukya General Govindaraja and drove him away from panaugallu rajya and restored rajya to Udaya Choda son of Gokarna Choda, chief of Kunduru.  Padmakshi temple, Siddeswara temple, Kesava temple, Swayambhudevalayam were built by Prolaraja II. 

The conquests of Prola were confined to the Telugu districts. He appears to have improved the irrigation of the country by building tanks.

Sanigaram Inscription : 1071, Sukla corresponding to A.D. 1149. A subordinate officer of Prola II named Repola Kujuvarasa is mentioned and his dundandyaka Mapdaparasu of Atreya gotra and Kamma-tefo is stated to have made some gifts of land and ratana to the god Parthsvara. 

1158 AD : The earliest extant record from Rudradeva's reign is the 1158 CE Daksharamam inscription issued by his minister Inangala Brammireddi. The Daksharamam inscription dates itself to the Shaka year 1080 (1158 CE) and to the 13th regnal year of the "Chalukya-Chola" king Rajaraja II. This inscription describes the death of his father, possibly during an invasion of the Vengi area in the coastal Andhra regionand presumed killed by Gonka II (1132–1161). Multiple feudatory chiefs appear to have fought against him in this battle, as several of them claim the responsibility for killing him in their inscriptions. 

1158 AD - 1195 AD : Rudradeva Son of Prola II
Son : Prataparudra I.
General : Recheral Kata II, Recherla Rudra 

An ambitious king, Rudradeva extends the boundaries of his kingdom: in the north (taking in modern day Karimnagar, and East Godavari); in the south (where he turns his attention to the Kandur Telugu Chola kings Bhima and Chodur in Nalagonda and Mahboobnagar, sacking their cities, Vardhamana and Kandur); and in the east (the Chalukya Chola regions of king Rajaraja III).

Palanadu war took place during the period of Prataparudra I.

The Palanadu chiefs fight amongst themselves, so Rudradeva renders military assistance to Nalagama’s faction. The military strength of Velanadu has been weakened, so Rudradeva exploits the situation by leading his forces into coastal Andhra and conquering territory as far as Srisailam and Tripurantakam in the south (subduing the chiefs of Kota and Kondapadumatis). Rudradeva extends his kingdom to the coastal regions of the Cholas after the death of Kulotunga.

Prataparudra divided his empire into 77 Nayankaras.

Started building Orugallu (Warangal).

1160-61 AD : Draksharamam, Ramachandrapuram Taluk, East Godavari District.
This inscription as a sovereign power is on the wall between the fifth and sixth pillars of the Bhimeswara temple at Draksharamam. This inscription is damaged, states that Dannamadevi, the queen of Kakati Rudradevaraja, set up a perpetual lamp (Akanda vatti) with metal stand to the god Bhimeswara and also gifted 50.....dlu (probably cows) for the supply of oneTribhuvana[nkusa]-mana of ghee. 

1163 AD Anumakonda inscription of Rudradeva alias Prataparudra I describes the Kakatiyas as a sovereign power.  Rudra Deva built Sri Rudreshwara Swamy Temple decorated with 1,000 pillars and is popularly known as Thousand Pillars Temple. 

13th January, 1171 AD : Karimnagar, Karimnagar District.
This inscription is on a stone pillar laying in the Collector's Bungalow. The record is in Telugu verse except a few lines in the end which are in prose. It gives a lengthy account of the minister Gangadhara. His ancestors are said to be the natives of Vellanki village in Vengi- desa. In the gotra of Atri, Kommanarya was born. His son and grandson were respectivelyNarayaṇan and Govinda. To Govinda and his wife Turukamamba was born Gamgadhara. After completing his education Gamgadhara joined the service of Kakati Prola and became the minister of Rudradeva. The present record registers the grant of Dimdomta village as agrahara to the brahmanas and the construction of Trikuta temple to the god Siva by Gamgadhara. He is also said to have constructed temples at several places, Anumakonda, Hidimbachala, Nagaruru etc., the last name being the capital of Sabbi-nadu over which he was appointed as governor.

1181 AD : Moripirala, Warangal District
This inscription is on a stone lying in the village. States that Proli Reddi, probably a descendent of the Viriyala family constructed several temples including that of Prolesvara, dug a well and granted Vrittis and mango garden to the deity.

The genealogy of Proli-reddi is given: It starts with Koti-reddi, the pet servant of Somanatha of Kolipaka (Kulpak) and his wife Vallusani who had a son Bali-reddi. The latter had 5 sons through his wife Bollasani and their names are (1) Bhimireddi (2) Kotireddi (3) Bacireddi (4) Proli-reddi and (5) Malli-reddi, Proli-reddi, the donor of the present record had a wife Macamambika.

23rd April, 1195 AD : Pillalamarri
Recheruvula Nama or Nami Raddi, son of Kama and a subordinate of king Rudradeva built a trikuta (triple-shrine) to God Siva consisting of Kamesvara (in the name of his father). Kachesvara (in the name of his mother) and Namesvara (in his own name) at Pillalamarri and granted for the anga-and ranga-bhogas of the god Namesvara and the worship of the other two deities, lands under Sabbi samudram, Visvanatha samudram and Gaurasamudram at Kudukudi.

1195 AD : Bekkallu, Jangaon Taluk, Warangal District.
This inscription is on the inner wall of the Siva temple. Gives a lengthy description of the king's subordinates of Ranjana family. Pommana, his son Daddapa, his son Kulvana and his son Gadadhara are stated. The last name is said to have constructed the temple of Srikantha (Siva). The poet Nagadeva son of Damodara of the Gautama gotra composed the inscription.

The middle portion, which is in Telugu, records that in the year Saka 1117 installed the gods Goyyesvara, Bayyesvara and Ramesvara after the names of his brothers Goyyaravutu and Bayyaravutu and gifted some lands for the worship and offerings of the above deities, by Gadadhara and his brothers.

The rivalry between the Kakatiyas and Yadavas was started from the period of Prataparudra I.

1195 : Rudradeva dies fighting the Seuna Yadava king Jaitrapala I.

1195 AD - 1199 AD : Mahadeva Brother.
General : Recherla Rudra 1197 : Yadavas of Devagiri captures prince Ganaptideva with the help of kakaitiya feudatories (Harihara, Ganapati, gunda) when the king was not in the fort.

1199 : Mahadeva dies fighting Yadavas of Devagiri to release his Son Ganapatideva.

1199 AD - 1261 AD: Ganpatideva
General : Recherla Rudra
Rebellions arise in the kingdom but these are crushed by the Kakatiya general, Recherla Rudra and ruled the Kingdom in the absence of Ganapatideva. 

26th December, 1199 AD : Manthena, Karimnagar District.
This inscription is on a pillar in the Hanuman temple near the tank called Tamma cheruvu. The record refers itself to the first regnal year of Kakatiya Ganapatideva. A chief named Allamprolaraja, who was ruling over Chennuridesa is stated to have made with the consent of the king Ganapatideva, a grant of land to Manchibhattopadyaya, the priest of the latter, the object of the grant being to enable the donee to construct a village and a tank in it. The gift land is stated to have been bounded by Godavari on the south.

The donee Manchibhattopadhyaya accordingly founded a village and excavated a tank in the said land and gave house sites to brahmanas of Mantrakuta. He also installed temples for Kesavadeva and Mahadeva and gave a garden to the god Gopijanavallabha of Mantrakuta.

1208 AD : Devagiri-Yadava king Singhana states that Ganapati was liberated,' apparently from some confinement, by Singhana's father, Jaitrapala I, and his kingdom handed over to him.

Recharla Rudra has the title of 'Kakatiyarajya stapanacharya'.

Ganapatideva was greatest among all Kakatiya rulers and ruled for a long period.

Raja Ganapatideva was the most powerful and eminent ruler of the dynasty who expanded the kingdom from the coastal Bay of Bengal in the east to the holy city of Kancheepuram in the south. Well versed in art and culture and literary pursuits, Kakatiya kings were great builders too. The Chalukyan style of temple architecture and decorative skill in sculpting greatly flourished and improved during their reign. These mighty kings were benevolent, egalitarian and able administrators - having democratic outlook in their governance.

Ganapatideva completed building Orugallu (Warangal) and shifted the capital from Hanumakonda to Warangal. Started Inner or stone wall of Warangal.

March 31, 1213 AD : Contruction of Ramappa Temple Completed by Recharla Rudra during Ganapatideva reign.

Ramappa Cheruvu, Pakala Cheruvu, Lakkavaram Cheruvu were dug during Ganapatideva reign

Having no sons, Ganpatideva hands over the reigns of his kingdom to his daughter, Rudramadevi. 

1261 AD - 1289 AD : Rudramadevi
General : Recherla Prasaditya Nayak, Mallikarjuna Nayak
1269 : Father Ganapati Deva death.
Completed Inner or stone wall of Warangal.

1261AD : It must be remembered in this connection that the relationship of king Ganapati of the Kakatiyas with the Seuna was fairly cordial, but with the accession of queen Rudramadevi to the throne this cordiality ceased and a serious danger came to the Kakatiya empire, from the Seuna king Mahadeva, who succeeded his cousin Krishna in 1260 A.D. and who invaded the Kakatiya kingdom. His invasion ended in utter failure, for according to the Pratapacharita, Mahadera though he laid siege to the capital Warangal, was resisted valiantly by queen Rudramba for 15 days during which she destroyed three lakhs of Suena infantry and one lakh of cavalry. 

1267 AD : Inscription of Sarangapani Deva in the temple of Chaya Somanatha at Panugal of Nalgonda district dated 1267 A.D. which registers a gift of land to the temple by Sarangapanideva son of Seuna king Singhana a subordinate of the Kakatiya Manma Rudradeva which is the same as Rudramadevi. Evidently Sarangapanideva who had seized the fort of Panugal realised that it would be impossible for him to exercise independence without accepting the suzerainty of the Kakatiya queen. In a similar manner it is possible that other Yadava feudatories who might have been exercising control over the Raichur doab might also have accepted the overlordship of the Kakatiyas.

1280 : Uma Maheshwaram Inscription - Ramayyangar accountant of queen's treasury built number of temples and Mathas for Saiva devotees. His wife Malasani also involved in this pious work.
1289 : The queen dies along with her general Mallikarjuna Nayak, fighting the Kayastha chief, Ambadeva on Nov 27, 1289 according to the inscription found in Chandupatla. 

1289 AD - 1323 AD: Prataparudra
General : Recherla Vennama Nayak, Eradacha Nayak and Naladacha Nayak
Prataparudra suppresses internal and external challenges and expands his kingdom westwards. 
The UmaMaheshwara inscription of Mada I refers to the conquest of Bhills of Daca, general of Prataparudra.This may have taken place during the campaign of Muppidi Nayaka on Kanchi, during which camping he defeated Manne chiefs. The description of this conquest in the record is couched in slesha and it seems to import that these wild tribes were called ambers.
1296 : The Delhi Sultanate, Jalaluddin Khilji had begun conquering the region of the Deccan Plateau in 1296 during the time when Juna Khan, later to be known as Alauddin Khilji, nephew and son-in-law of Jalaluddin had plundered Devagiri in Maharashtra.

1303 : First Muslim Invasion against Kakatiyas. He wards off the first attack by Malik Kafur in 1303, during the Islamic conquest of India which is centred on the Delhi sultanate Allauddin Khilji.

1309 - 1310 : Second Muslim Invasion in 1309 by Malik Kafur general of Delhi Sultanate Alauddin Khalji, capture Siripur and Hanumakonda, and the kingdom ravaged forcing Prataprudra to sue for peace.
Alauddin Khalji got Kohinoor diamond from Pratap Rudradeva of Warangal.

1316 AD : Malik Kafur masterminded the death of Alauddin Khilji in 1316 and blinded the heir apparent Khizr Khan and Shadi Khan. Mubarak Khan, Khilji's third son escaped the blinding attempt and later Malik was assassinated by his soldiers whom he sent to blind Mubarak.
Kakatiya general Muppidi Nayaka drove out the Kerala kings from Kanchipuratn 
1317 A, D. Sundara Pandya arranged a service in the Vridhachalam temple in ho:nour of the Kakatiya general Muppidi Nayaka. Kakatiya general Davarinayaka drove out Kerala king Ravivarman Kulaiekhara and Keraja Vira Pandya from &n Rangam and established the younger brother Sundara Pandya on the throne at Viradhavalam near Tiruchchirappallt (while the elder brother Vira Paadya. continued his reign from Madura). The Kerala kings retired to Travancore. 
1318 - 1319 : Third Muslim Invasion when Mubarak Khilji was the Delhi Sultan. 

1320 : Prataprudra reasserts his independence as the Khilji dynasty ends and the Tughlaqs come to power in Delhi.

1323 : The fourth and fifth Muslim invasion took place against Kakatiyas in 1323, Sultan Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq sends his son, "Ulug Khan" alias "Junakhan" alias "Mohammad Bin Tuglak" to defeat the defiant Kakatiya king. The attack is repulsed. Tughlaqs return a month later with a larger and more determined army. The unprepared and battle-weary Kakatiya army at Warangal is finally defeated, and Prataparudra is taken prisoner.  It is said that he commits suicide by drowning himself in the River Narmada, while on his way to Delhi.

Ulugh Khan (also known as Muhammad bin Tughluq), the general that conquered Warangal, renamed it "Sultanpur" and remained as the governor of the region for a short period, thus ending the Kakatiya dynasty. 

With Prataprudra’s demise, Kakatiya rule comes to an end. Later, the Musunuri Nayaks who had served as army chiefs for the Kakatiya kingdom, unite the Telugu people and recover Warangal from Delhi. They rule the region for half a century.

Prataprudra’s brother, Annamdev, sets up his own kingdom at Bastar, Chattisgad.



Historical sketches of ancient Dekhan, by K. V. Subrahmanya Aiyer.

A history of the Deccan. By J. D. B. Gribble


Social and Cultural Life in Medieval Andhra