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Kandur Cholas

1040 AD - 1268 AD 
Founder : Eruva Bhima I
Capitals : Panugallu, Kanduru and Vardhamanpura 
Language : Telugu

Eruva Bhima I , apparently the founder of the dynasty , who originally had hailed from Eruvanādu , was also known as  Panugallupuradhipa, Lord of Panugallu, present day Panugal or Panagal.

Cholas of Kandu started ruling from Pangal as independent rulers and as subordinate to the Chalukyas of Kalyana and the Kakatiyas of Warangal between 11th and 13th centuries.

Kandur Cholas ruled parts of Mahabubnagar (Jadcharla and Acchampet taluks) and Nalgonda (Nalgonda Suryapeta, Devarakonda, Miryalguda taluks) parts of Khammam and Krishna districts in the southern parts with Kanduru, Panugallu and Vardhamanpura as their capitals. These kings are described that they were belongs to Karikala chola family.

Panagallu, Kandur, Ghanapuram, Gangapuram, Vardhamanapuram, Amrabad, Rachur, Kodur, Maghatala (Makthal), Vangur, Munnanur are having the forts in various places of this district and protected the kingdom. 

The region of Kandurunadu located south of the Kakatiya territory formed the yuvaraja-vritti or kumara-vritti (royal appanage) of Kumara Tailapa, the younger brother of the Chalukya king Somesvara III. It appears that Kumara Tailapa was active in the region even during the reign of his father, King Vikramaditya, as Tailapa's earliest inscriptions in Kandurunadu date to 1110 C.E. In addition to Kandurunadu, Kumara Tailapa also held the province of Sindavadi, with its capital at Tumbalam (near Adoni).

It seems that Tailapa distributed the governorship of Kandurunadu between two brothers of the Choda family, Bhima III (who held Kanduru) and Gokarna I (who held Panugallu).

Prince Tailapa eventually sought to become independent of his elder brother. While Bhima III agreed to fight for Tailapa, Gokarna I remained loyal to King Somesvara. As a result, it seems that Gokarna was killed by Kumara Tailapa and Bhima III in 1128.

Prola II, at the behest of King Somesvara, invaded Kandurunadu to put an end to the rebellion. Prola attacked the general Govinda-damdesa, who had received Panugallu from Kumara Tailapa after Gokarna was killed. Upon defeating and killing Govinda-damdesa, Prola restored Panugallu to Udaya Choda, the son of Gokarna. Prola's campaign into Panugallu seems to have occurred sometime between 1128 and 1136.


c.1040 - c.1065 : Eruva Bhima I
In the Eruva line, Bhima the lord of Phanugallu-para, was born for the rejoicing of all.Subordinate to Western Chalukya King Somesvara I (1042 - 1068).

An inscription found at Nagai dated 1058 AD, Ayyarasa of Haihaya family was ruling Kandurnadu under Somesvara I.

Granted the lordship of Cheraku together with its 12 villages to Cheraku Chief Kata I.

c.1065 - c.1076 : Tonda I son of Eruva Bhima I
Subordinate to Western Chalukya King Somesvara I (1042 - 1068).
Eruva Tonda , apparently , was a military commander in the army of Dandanayaka Mahapradhani Anantapalayya.

c. 1076 - c. 1091 : Bhimachoda II son of Tonda I
The Chalukyan emperor, Someswara-11 (1068 - 1076) who ruled over the district. The Kolanupaka inscriptions dated A.D. 1070 and A.D. 1075 respectively. These inscriptions are interesting, for the former mentions a’ reddimanya’ probably a service endowment granted to reddy, who was a village officer, while the letter refers to a levy called settisumka meaning “a mercantile tax”.Subordinate to Western Chalukya King Vikramaditya VI (1076 - 1126). It is likely that Bhima Choda II fought beside Vikramaditya VI in a civil battle with this brother Somesvara II (1068 - 1076) and obtained Kandurnadu region for his services.

Bhimachoda II had four sons (Tonda II, Iruga, Kondaya, Mallikarjunachoda) by his wife ganagadevi.

c. 1091 - 1098 Tonda II
Subordinate to Western Chalukya King Vikramaditya VI (1076 - 1126). 

1092-93 AD : Koppole, Nalgonda.
This inscription, engraved on a slab lying near a tank opposite the Muthyalamma temple, is in Telugu language and Characters and is dated in the Chalukya Vikrama era (year not specified) Angirasa (A.D. 1092-93). It registers a gift of land in the village Jalapattu for the upkeep of the lake at Kroproli and for the maintenance of the Rudresvaradevara-satra, on the occasion of Uttarayan-Sankranti, by Kanduri-Tondaya-Cholamaharaju. The gift was entrusted to Chilyakamti-Anamtasaka-Pandita.

Assumed responsibilities well before his father died c. 1091.
Udayachoda I, Bhimachoda III, Gokarnachoda I are the sons of Tonda II.

c. 1098 - 1105 : Mallikarjunachoda and Kondaya Chola brothers of Tonda II
Mallikarjunachoda might be appointed as governor to Amanakallu-70, a part of Kandurnadu.

1098 AD : Ollala Inscription, Nalgonda 
In the Saka year ambara (o), ambaka (2) akasa (o), and sasanka (1) i.e. 1020. Gunda was the minister of Malla Choda. Being pleased with his abilities Malla granted him the village Ollāla as agrahara

1098 AD : A number of newly-discovered inscriptions refer to the political conditions prevailing in the twelfth-thirteenth centuries A.D. Among these, mention may be made of the one from Vellala: dated in Saka 1020 (A.D. 1098) and written in Sanskrit language it refers to Mahamandalesvara Mallikarjuna of Kanduri Choda family and traces the genealogy of the family to Karikala and Eruva Bhima. The extension of certain territorial divisions namely Cheraku and Eruva to Telingana for the first time is significant.

c. 1105 - 1136 : Udayachoda I son of Tonda II
Chief : Mallayanayaka
Kumara Tailapa the younger son of Vikramaditya VI was in possession of kandurnadu-1100 and Sindvadi-1000 with its capital at Tumbalam near Adoni and wanted to assert independence over kandurnadu.

Kolanupaka, Bhuvanagiri 
Fragmentary. Records a gift of fifty sheep for a perpetual lamp obviously to god Somesvara by Muppama-nayaka, a servant of Udayana Choda-maharaja. Also records similar gifts for perpetual lamps by other individuals whose names however are not clear. 

Since the accession of Somesvara III signs of disloyalty surfaced among Kandur chodas.

1120 AD : Iruga
Nagarkurnool: This inscription is on a stone lying in the RDO’s bungalow. Incomplete. Mentions only the prasasti and cyclic year. Begins with the usual prasasti of the Kanduri Chodas and mentions the name of the king Irugana Choda maharaja.

1120 AD : Somanatha Chola  
Udimilla, Achchampet Taluk, Mahbubnagar District. : Kanduri Choda
This inscription is on the right-side pillar in the mukha-mandapa of the Ramesvara temple. Records the gift of 3 marutars of land to the god Kedaresvara and 2 marutars of land to the god Kesavadeva by the king mahamandalesvara Kanduri Somanathadeva-choda- maharaju. The gift lands are stated to have been situated in different places. Also records the gift of a perpetual lamp to the same god.

26th March 1120 AD : Uppununthala
This inscription is on a pillar in the mandapa of Siva temple. Records mahamandalesvara kanduri Somanadhadeva Chada maharaju made a grant of land measures 12 khas, of velivolamu (dry land), and niru polamu, 3 mas, (wet land) situated behind the tank Prolenayaka, to God Kedaresvara. He also donated 2 mas, behind Basanicheruvu and Karrakuli penta sunkamu (market tax) towards nanda dipa.

c. 1124 - 1129 : Sridevi Tondya
1128 AD : Anamala, Miryalaguda Taluk. : Kanduru Choda
This inscription is on a stone pillar set up in the fields towards the west of the village. The inscription records that Mahamandalesvara Kanduri Sridevi Tondaya of Kasyapa-gotra, Karikalanvaya, and solar race, the lord of Kodurupura granted the prabhutva (lordship) of Alamula included in Cheraku-70 (region) with ashtabhogatejas-svamyatas to Ajjala Erayana- peggada. The record, on the other three sides contains Telugu verses in Kanda and one in Champakamala metres, stating that certain Prolemaraja-amarya obtained (from the king) vrittis consisting of Chagamari-12 and Dodidorti-12 and other things.

1128 AD : Anamala, Miryalaguda.
Belonging to the same period are two epigraphs from Anamala in Miryalaguda Taluk. They belong to the Kanduri Choda family which paid allegiance to the Western Chalukyas of Kalyani. One of them, dated Saka 1050 (A.D. 1128), was issued by Sridevi Tondaya and is silent about the overlord, suggesting an independant status. The other. dated to A.D. 1127, belongs to one Gokarna. 

1105 - 1157 : Bhimachoda III
Bhimachoda III was ruling with Vardhamanapura as his capital.

18th June 1116 AD : Gattuthimmam, Achempet Taluk
This inscription is on a pillar in the mandap of Rameswara Swamy temple. Registers the gift of 18 tumus towards the daily rites of God Ramesvara of Tumenti and one ma of ghee towards perpetual lamp, and 24 rukas from Siddhayamu towards 24 vidyas by Vennamahadevi, the chief queen of Kanduri Nalla Bhimadeva Choda maharaja.29th December A.D. 1122 : Upparapalli, Nalla Bhimadeva Choda Maharaja : 
This inscription is in the water channel about one kilometre away from the village. Records that Vennamahadevi the chief queen of mahamandalesvara Kanduri Nalla Bhimadeva Choda maharaju made a grant of land belonging to Gollakaluva in Tummenta, her native village, to god Narasimhadeva, of Mavindlapalli, for the daily worship and offerings. It also records another grant of Bakiratnamu land.

1157 AD : Kistapuram, Ramannapet Taluk : Kanduru Choda
This inscription is on a slab lying near the old Shiva temple outside the village. The cyclic year Isvara corresponds to Saka 1019 and 1079 [A.D. 1097 and 1157 respectively]; but palacographically it may be assigned to A.D. 1157. The inscription records the gift of some lands to the god [---]esvara of Parivela village by Kanduri Bhimachoda Maharaja of Kasyapa Gotra and Karikalanvaya for the merit of his father Tomdayaraja. 

Sridevi Tondya and Bhimachoda III supported the cause of kumara Tailapa whereas Gokarnachoda I stood firmly on the side of emperor Somesvara III.

It appears that Bhimachoda III, armed with material and moral support of Kumara Tailapa, killed his younger brother Gokarnachoda I.

Kakatiya Prola II defeated Bhimachoda III and Sridevi Tondya and reinstated Udayachoda II as the ruler of Panugallu rajya. Bhimachoda II continued to rule Vardhamanapuram.

1105 - 1136 : Gokarnachoda I
10th March A.D. 1122 : Panugallu, Nalgonda District.
This inscription is on a broken stone pillar now in the State Museum. Dated C.V.E. 1043 (mistake far Saka) Subhakrit Phalguna, Amavasya, Friday, Solar eclipse (A.D. 1122, March 10 ?). Records that Mahamandalesvara Gokarna Choda gave away the lordship of Maduvula in kukkulamu 30 to Kavaliya Bhimana Peggada and the lordship of Addaluru in Amanikallu-70 with astabhagas to Doddabhatlu after washing the feet of the respective donees.

10th March 1122 AD : Panagallu
This inscription is on a stone now preserved in the State Museum, Hyderabad. States that, Mahamandalesvara Kanduri Gokarna Choda Maharaja (conferred on G(K)avaliya Bhimana Peggada, son-in-law (or nephew) of Gamanapeggada, the lordship of Addaluru included in Amanagallu-70 on his (Bhimana Peggada's) son, Doddaya bhattu.

11th August 1124 AD : Panagallu
This inscription is on a stone pillar lying in the Pachala Someshwara Temple. Damaged and fragmentary. Records that, on the occasion of Surya grahana in the year Krodhi, S.1046, Mailambika, wife of Tondanripa who had three sons viz., Udayaditya, Bhima and Gokarna granted an agrahara called Choda Bhima Narayanapuram to 108 Brahmanas. Though the month, tithi, and vara (day in week) are not given, the date of the inscription can be calculated on the basis of the solar eclipse, of which there was only one in the year given in the record. It corresponds to Monday, 11th August, A.D. 1124.

Rajapeta, Yeleswaram, Nalgonda District. Gokarna Deva
Gattu Timmana, Mamillapally, Mahaboobnagar District. Kanduri Gokarna Choda Deva

29th July 1128 AD  : Pedda Kadumuru
This inscription is on a pillar in front of Brahmesvara temple. Registered a gift of land to Gods Mallikarjuna, Kesavadeva and Narsimhadeva, of Mamillapalli for the maintenance of a perpetual lamp by Savadara Bollayya Nayaka, while Gokar nadeva was ruling.

1136 AD - 1178 AD : Udayachoda II Son of Gokarnachoda I
General : Arasalu
King Udayanachoda, who was ruling a vast kingdom comprising 1,100 villages from Panugal in the present Nalgonda district, had expanded his kingdom as far as the present Mahabubnagar district, holding the strategic Krishna River belt under his control.

25th December A.D. 1136 : Peruru, Miryalaguda Taluk, Nalgonda District.
This inscription is set up before the mukhamandapa of the swayambhu Someswara temple. Records the gift of land by madalika Gunadya, an officer under the chief for conducting the offerings and worship on the day of Uttarayana-Sankranthi. The land was measured by a rod called ghada-marturu to the deity Kesavadeva installed by Yajnavalki Kesava-bhatta.

Sirikonda inscription dated A.D.1149 states that, Mahamandalika ketaya of the Pallava lineage obtained kondapallinadu by means of charter from Mahamandaleshwar Koduru Udayana Choda maharaja who was ruling Sirikonda-rajya, made the gift of lands and tolls on various articles of merchandise to the Gods namely adjusted in to the God’s hundi.

An inscription on a stone slab dating back to 1158 CE has been discovered and reported by the villagers of Vavikollu in Gundlapally mandal of Nalgonda district.The orders were passed on a Sunday, which was Pournami (full moon night) of lunar eclipse on August 10, 1158, when the King had gifted his Raj Purohit Sarvadeva Somayajulu a village named ‘Bodavipparru.’  The inscriptions stated that the village was exempted from any form of taxation and that Somayajulu could enjoy the land as per his wishes. 

Subordinate of Jagadekamalla II (1138 - 1158) and Subordinate to Kakatiya Rudradeva (1158 - 1195).

Kata, Mara and two Erras, the cheraku chiefs assisted Kakatiya Rudra in defeating Udayachoda II who made peace by giving his daughter Padma in marriage to Kaktiya Rudradeva.

Thus, Kakatiya Rudradeva launched an expedition against Telugu Choda chiefs between 1157 and 1162. In this expedition rudradeva attacked Vardhamanapuram and drove Bhimachoda III along with his followers to forest.

24th October A.D. 1159 : Rachur
This inscription is on a stone pillar lying in the temple outside the village. Registers the fact that two lamp stands were installed by Ravitorri Peggada Mallisetti in Kesavadeva temple which was situated in Somanatha temple at Panagallu. The said gift was entrusted to the son (name not clear) of Mutteboyana nayaka in S 1081 to maintain these nanda deepas.

1160 AD : Rachur
This inscription is on a stone pillar lying in the temple outside the village. Registers a gift of thirty goats for the supply of ghee to nanda deepas installed by Ravitorri peggada Malliseyi for Kesava deva. The said gift was entrusted to Yeruge son of Muttuboyana.

25th December, 1162 AD : Jadcherla, Mahaboobnagar District.
This inscription is on a stone slab set up in front of Venkateswara temple. Dated (S) 1084, Chitrabhanu Pushya ba 2, Tuesday (A.D. 1162 December, 25). Records the grant of Koduri Gokarna Singa rukalu from malinga sunkamu in the village of Gangapuram for the two nanda-dipas and gosagi naivedyam for Svayambhudeva of Koduru, by Nalla Siddaramaiah and Errasiddhamaiah the dandanayakas of Kibatte and Melvatte and Sunka officers (Collectors of Revenue) of Udayana Choda maharaja of Kanduru.

30th April, 1167 AD: Lingala
This inscription is on two broken pieces of stone in the Siva temple and another in the field. Registers the grant of Lingala village, in Kanduru mandala made at Somasila shrine on the bank of Krishna by certain Tonda son of Kanna and Mallamasani of the Solar dynasty, renowned for the birth of Karikala. He is further stated to have established three shrines for Visnu, Siva and Surya in the names of Bhimaraju, Gokarnaraju and his father respectively.

12th September 1172 AD : Indrakallu
This inscription is on a pillar in the mandapa of Siva temple. Registers the grant of two puttis per month for the daily offerings of God Indresvara by Sunka verggade Kommanayya while his over lord Kanduri Udayana Choda was ruling.

10th March 1174 AD : Markal, Parigi, Rangareddy.
It states that the King held titles like Karikalanvaya and Viramanesvara. It records the gift of 16 marttars of land in the village Marikallu as Naivedya, two gadde marttars along with ratana, land to Sun god and 10 marttars of land to Chennakesava by Sri Marrikallu Balla Veliyam Reddi.

1176 AD : Nelakondapalli, Khammam District.
This inscription is on a stone lying near the local library. Dated S 1097, Manmatha, Magha su-(A.D. 1176, Feb...?). Records the construction of a sluice for the great tank at Kondapally. One Malli Nayaka gave a martur of land to the God Visvesvara for naivedya.

12th April A.D.1178 : Jupally, Udayaditya II
This inscription is on a pillar lying in the Veerabhadra temple. Begins with the prasasti of the Choda chief of Kanduru Udayaditya and refers to his subordinate chief named Poti reddi with a string of titles which mention that he was lord of Jammulurupura. This inscription registers a gift of land in Peddi reddipalli for performing anga-ranga-bhogas and daily rituals to God Mahesvara by Poti reddi for his merit and for the merit of his overlord.

Bhimachoda IV and Gokarnachoda II are the sons of Udayachoda II were ruling Kandur jointly and are contemporaries to Kakatiya Rudradeva and Ganapatideva (1199 - 1262). 

1178 AD - 1243 AD : Gokarnachoda II
25th October 1178 AD : Mamillapally, Manchikunta, Palm, Mahaboobnagar District, Bhima and Gokarna II

1184 AD : Lingala, Nagarkurnool District.
This inscription is on two broken pieces of stone, one in Siva temple and other in the field. Dated S 1106 Vai. Sans sakha Ama. krit vasya. Records the grant of Lingala village, in Kanduru mandala, made at Somasila shrine on the bank of Krishna by a certain Tanda son of Kanna and Mallama Sani (?) of the solar dynasty, renowned for the birth of Karikala, he is further stated to have established 3 shrines for Vishnu, Siva and Surya in the names of Bhimaraju, Gokarna Raju and his own father respectively.

30th May A.D. 1191 : Paddur, Nagarkurnool , Gokarna Deva Choda Maharaju II

1207 AD : Cherlapally, Nalgonda.
Of the three Telugu inscriptions in Telugu characters from the Anesvarammagutta, the first, dated Saka 1129 (A.D. 1207), records a grant of lands to a brahmana by Ereyana Peggada and also for the merit of Kanduri Odayanachoda-maharaja, the local ruling chief. The second inscription, in characters of the twelfth century engraved on the pedestal of an image, states that this is an image of Mahamandalesvara Kanduri Odayanachoda-maharaja. The third, engraved around the foot-prints in characters of the twelfth century, reads as Jina Brahmayogi- guru-pada Charukitti.

22nd March A.D. 1243 : Patancheru, Sangareddy Taluk, Medak, Gokarnachoda Maharaju

1178 AD - 1235 AD : Bhimachoda IV
17th November A.D. 1234: Mallepally, Devarakonda, Nalgonda.
It is dated Saka 1157, Jaya, Kartika bahula 10, Thursday. The cyclic year Jaya coincides with Saka 1156 corresponding to A.D. 1234 November 17, Friday. This inscription is on a stone pillar set up near the cross roads, on the left side of Hyderabad-Nagarjuna Sagar road. The inscription is faulty in several aspects. It registers the grant of the village Akam Mallepally for amga-ramga-bhogas and offerings of the god Mahesvaradeva presiding at the northern gate of 'Srisaila, that is, Umamahesvara in Achchampet taluk, Mahbubnagar district. At the end of the inscription there is a description of Omkararasi-deva, the sthanapati of Mahesvara Deva, probably the recipient of the gift. The grant was issued by Mahamandalesvara Kanduri Bhimadeva Choda Maharaja of Kasyapa gotra, Karikal anvaya and solar race

1224 AD : Gona Ganapayya Son of Gona Budha Reddi obtained by the grace of Ganapatideva, the Kandur-nadu which he was ruling from Vardhamanapura.

1235 - c.1260 : Udayaditya Chola III
9th September 1235 AD : Edampalli, Devarakonda Taluk, Udayaditya Choda, son of Somanathadeva
This inscription is on a stone in the field outside the village. The inscription registers the gift of his part (palu) of the village Nalladamapalli for the amgaramga bhogas and offerings to the god Mahesvara by Mahamandalesvara Kanduri Udayaditya Choda Maharaja of Kasyapa gotra, Karikalanvaya and solar race, the lord of Kodurupura for the merit of his father Somanathadeva.

1235 - c.1260 : Bhima Chola V
27th October A.D. 1235 AD : Indrakallu, Bhimadeva Choda Maharaju
This inscription is in the central pillar in the Indreshwara temple outside the village. States that a certain Udayana Preggada, mahapradhani of Kanduru, made a gift of twenty eight lamps towards nanda deepa for God Indresvara, while Bhimachoda deva maharaja was ruling. The gift was entrusted to Kampu Kolanka Boyi.

1235 AD : Mallepally, Nalgonda District, Bhimadeva Choda

c.1260 - c. 1275 : Malnathadevachoda

1282 AD : Ramanathadevachoda
Ruling Miryalaguda Taluk of Nalgonda district as the subordinate of Kakatiya Rudramadevi (1262 - 1289)

Recherla family was ruling pillalamarri and nagalpadu region in Nalgonda district.

Cheraku chief Cheraku Bollaya was ruling Nandikotkur of Kurnool and Achampet Taluk of Mahaboobnagar.

Kayastha Chief Ganagaya Sahini was ruling the region extending from Panugallu in Nalgonda District to Valluru in the Cuddapah district.

The History of Andhra Country, 1000 A.D.-1500 A.D.By Yashoda Devi

Telugu Chodas of Kandur by G. Satyanarayana rao


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