Western Chalukyas of Kalyani

973 AD - 1163 AD ( 973 AD - 1200 AD)
Founder : Tailapa II
Capitals : Manyakheta, Kalyani (Basavakalyan in Bidar , Karnataka)
Languages : Kannada, Sanskrit
Religion : Jainism, Hinduism

The last ruler of Rastrakuta Dynasty Kakka II (Karaka) was killed by Taila II or Tailapa II the scion of old Chalukya stock in 973 AD. Thus Taila II founded the dynasty of Chalukyas of Kalyani which lasted for 2 centuries. For 200 years they remained in conflict with the Cholas and also the eastern Chalukyas of Vengi. They were finally destroyed by the Hoyasala Empire in 12th century. The empire of Chalukyas of Kalyani is also known as Western Chalukya Empire. This empire has a great contribution in the modern Kannada literature as well as Sanskrit literature.

973 - 997 AD : Tailapa II
Tailapa-II was one of the feudatories of the Rastrakutas and declared independence from Rashtrakutas after killing Karka and occupied his capital Manyakheta.

He restored the family of his ancestors to its former glory. Taila reigned for 24 years and during that time was able to recover the ancient territory of his race except the Gujarat region. We know about his reign from the Gadag records. He patronized a Kannada poet Ranna who was one the earliest poets of Kannada language. Ranna, Adikavi Pampa and Sri Ponna together are called three gems of Kannada literature.

10th April, A.D. 973 : Koraprolu, Medak District.
This inscription is dated S. 895, Srimukha Vaisakha su. 5, Thursday. (A.D. 973, April 10). The king's feudatory, Mahamandalesvara Soma Permadi was governing Koraprola in Kasavula-seventy from the capital Koraprola. The inscription records land grants to the god Bibbesvara constructed by his father Bibbarasa. This is the earliest record of the Chalukyas of Kalyana in Telangana as it is dated in the regnal year of Tailapa II, the founder of the Chalukya dynasty.

According to the Guider epigraph Kaktiya Beta I (996 - 1052) was too young to rule when his father was killed. The Kakatiya family was in dire straits at this time, being deprived of their lands as well as an adult male head. On the request of Kamavasani, the wife of Viriyala Erra Tailapa made him the head of Koravi region.

995 AD : Supported Mudigonda Chalukyas against Kaktiyas by killing Gunda IV (950 - 995).
Most of the time, Tailapa II kept on fighting with Munja, a Paramara king of Dhara. Munja was finally captured and probably killed in captivity. This was in 995 AD. 

Two years later Tailpa died and his crown was passed on to his son Satyasraya

997 - 1008 AD : Satyasraya
The period of reign of Satyasraya was 997 to 1008 AD. Though, to star with, he adopted the aggressive policy of his father had enmity with the eastern Chalukyas and Cholas. His 11 years reign was disturbed and was finally faced the disastrous consequence of a war with the great Chola Rajaraja-I. Rajaraja-I overran the Chalukya country and looted and killed a large number of men, women and children. Satyasraya was followed by Vikramaditya V and Jaysimha II. The next important king was Someshwara I.

An archaeology enthusiast discovered a stone inscription with the orders passed by 10th century Kalyani Chalukyan ruler Satyasraya atop a hillock called Dasthagiri Gutta in Basara town of Nirmal district.

The whole of Telangana region was under his rule.

1008 - 1015 AD : Vikramaditya V
He had a title named "Tribhuvana Malla" and was follower of Jainism.
Kalabhairava Swamy temple inscription in Ummeda village in Nizamabad district pertains to the reign of Tribhuvanamalla Vikramaditya V. Satya Ratnakara Burudankita, Somarasa Punyamkora, the great prime minister of Pallavarasa era 933 on the full moon Sunday of Falguna month (February 10, 1012) during the lunar eclipse, washed the feet of Somanatha and worshipped the land of 60 martyrs.”

1015 AD : Ayyana
Rajendra Chola of Chola dynasty killed Ayyana in battle and occupied Kollipaka region.

1015 - 1042 AD : Jayasimha II also known as Jagadhekamalla I and Mallikamoda
Jayasimha II fought with cholas and recaptured kollipaka region.
Paramara Bhoja invaded Chalukya kingdom and conquered Nasik region, but Jayasimha waged a war with him around 1019-1022 and recaptured the region.
Jayasimha took to Shivaism in 1034 AD. His defence minister Macharaju patronised poet Chandrarajan who wrote a book called Madana Tilaka.

Developed the town of Kolanupaka and gave donations to Jain.

September 29, 1017 AD : Inscription in Ummeda village of Nandipet Mandal, located within Nizamabad district,  emerged on a stone boulder locally known as ‘Ganapathi Gundu’, situated within the Kalabhairava temple premises within the village. This inscription spans three feet in height and four feet in width. Dated back to September 29, 1017 AD, the decree was issued on the propitious occasion of Pingala Aswayuja Shuddha Shashti, a Sunday.

December 31, 1031 AD : This inscription is engraved on the four faces of the pillar kept in Bandayappa matha in the village Bichkunda, Kamireddi district, Telangana. It is written in Kannada language and characters, dated Saka 953, Prajapati, Pushya, Su 15, = 1031 CE, December 31, Friday.

This was issued in the reign of Kalyana Chalukya King Jagadekamalla (Jayasimha II). It seems to records the construction of Kalla Basadi of Desiyagana and installation of the Tirthankara Chandra (Prabha) therein and also gift of lands by Senabova Changayya, Palla Chattayya, Boppagorava, Devannayya, Sovappayya with all the merchant guilds viz., Nakharas and Munnurvaru as Sarvamanya.

1042 - 1068 AD : Someswara I
Someshwara I, who was also known as Ahavamalla or Trilokamalla reigned from 1042 AD to 1068 AD. The contemporary Chola King was Rajadhiraja Chola I who became Chola king in the same year i.e. 1042. Someshwara I had established Kalyani as its capital.

He faced the attack of Rajadhiraja Chola-I, who overran initially the Chalukyan capital and demolished the forts and erected the pillars as a memorabilia of the victories, but the Chalukyan counter attack forced them out. Under Someshwara-I , the Chalukya army raided Chola capital Kanchipuram but it was repelled back. Finally in the battle of Koppam, Rajadhiraja Chola was killed. But his younger brother took the command and drove the Chalukyas back. In this attack, brother of Someshwara-I was killed. The reign of Someshwara I is known for numerous wars.

Kaktiya Beta I (996 - 1052)  joins the Western Chalukya armies of Someswara I in the Chola invasion of 1052. Along with his general, Recharla Bramha, he destroys the Chola armies (of King Rajadhiraja I) and enters the city of Kanchi.

In 1067 prince Vikramaditya VI invaded chola kingdom and plundered Tanjore, Kanchi and Gangaikonda. Kakatiya Prola I(1052 - 1076) also participated in these wars and won the praise of Somesvara and was gifted Hanumakonda region. 

Inscription dated Saka 978 (1056 AD) refers to the renovation of Indra Narayana Temple, formally built by Indra Vallabha / Indra III (914 AD - 929 AD) of Rashtrakuta family, consecration of the image of Vishnu therein, erection of Garuda-pillar.

This able king of the Western Chalukya Empire ended his life by drowning himself in the river Tungabhadra, due to his inability to endure a fever. Someshwara I was succeeded by his elder son Someshwara II.

1068 - 1076 AD : Someswara II
Had a title named Bhuvanaika Malla and he was a worshipper of Shiva.
He also fought wars against Chola Dynasty.

Vikramaditya VI with the help of Chola Veera Rajendra occupied Rattapadi region and declared himself king. Later in 1071 AD attacked his brothers kingdom and defeated him and agreed to give his brother regions of Anantapur, Chitradurgam, Dharwad and Kalinga.

Vikramaditya VI not satisfied revolted second time and defeated him in 1076 AD and declared himself the emperor.

1076 - 1126 AD : Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI ascended the throne in 1076 AD which marks the beginning of Chalukya-Vikram era. Vikramaditya VI was one of the ablest kings of the Western Chalukyan Empire. He left the maximum number of inscriptions, all in Kannada.

Greatest of Kalyani Chalukya rulers. He ruled for 50 years and expanded his kingdom in a huge way. Started Chalukya Vikram era.

Vikramadiyas younger brother Jayasimha revolted against him in 1080 AD but was suppressed by him.

He invaded Chola kingdom in 1084 AD and plundered Kanchi.
Vent kingdom was port of Kalyani Chalukyas between 1118 and 1138 AD.

He is the hero of a historical poem (Vikramankadevacharita) by Bilhana, a Kashmir poet and reigned for around half a century in tolerable peace.

Vikramaditya VI captured Kanchi in late in his career and engaged with serious battles with a Hoyasala King of Dorsamudra known as Vishnu. In the capital Kalyani during the times of Vikramaditya VI, a celebrated jurist of the 12th century called Vijñāneśvara lived. Vijñāneśvara has written a treatise on inheritance which is among the most influential legal treatises in Hindu Law outside Bengal. The title of this work was Mitāksarā.

Mitākṣarā is considered to be an important commentary on Yajnavalkya Smriti. Another work by Vijñāneśvara is Dayabhaga, which is also related to Hindu law. Death of Vikramaditya VI was followed by a decline of Chalukya Empire. The Western Chalukya Dynasty ended in 1190, when most parts of its territory were absorbed by Yadavas of Devagiri and Hoyasals of Dorsamudra. The last King of Western Chalukyan Empire was Someshwara IV. After his death, the remaining territories of the

Duggavatti epigraph of Tribhuvanamalla Vikramaditya VI, which is dated Saka1049, Prabhava, Pusa su.1, padiva, Advara and corresponds to A.D. 1126, December, 16 Thursday, not Sunday as stated, it is obvious that Vikramaditya VI was still on the throne upto A.D. 1126 December 16, if not further.

Patancheru grant of the king Bhulokamalla Somesvara III states specifically that king Bhulokamalla’s coronation took place on Phalguna su 7 Sunday, in the Chalukya Vikrama Year 51, Prabhava

King Vikramaditya VI was still on the throne upto A.D.1126, December, 16, and king Bhulokamalla’s coronation took place in A.D. 1127, February 20. 

1126 - 1138 AD : Bhulokamalla Someswara III
1134 AD : This is dated the 8th year of the reign of the Chalukya king Bhulokamalladeva, Ananda, Ashadha, su(?) amavasye, Somavara, Vuatipata, Sankranti, Surya-grahana, corresponding to A.D. 1134 July 23 Monday when there was a solar eclipse; Simha-sankranti fell on the 28th of the month. His feudatory, the Mahamandalesvara Irungola-Cholamaharaja issued orders to the Mahapradhana Garudasetti to make a gift of 6 mattars of land, a flower garden, an oil-mill, and a house for the service of the god Bhimesvaradeva, set up by the Vaddavyavahari Bivisetti, son of Baputisetti and Bammikavve and for the feeding and clothing of the ascetics Ketarasi and Madhavarasi.

1135 : This is dated the 10th year of the Chalukya king Bhulokamalladeva (ruling from Kalyana), Rakshasa, Jyeshtha, su. 3, Adivara, corresponding to A.D. 1135, May 27 Friday, not Sunday, as stated. The Mhapradhana Senadhipati Sandhivigrahi Barmadevayya, the Hergade Guttiya-Dandanayaka Sambudeva, Savasi Anadabhatta of Palyea, Sairajabhatta, Sonubhatta, the Mahapradhana and Dandanaaka Kalimayya, Nayaka Recharasa, Ramadeva-Nayaka, Malleya-Nayaka Bacharasa and Dasimarasa together with Kuchi-Setti, made a grant, on account of Uttarayana, of some land and on oil-mill for the service of the gods Jakkesvaradeva and Kesavadeva. Ketumalla-Setti, Polli-Setti and Desimanta-Manavala made a gift of 500 leaves, for the service of the god Jakkesvara.

1138 - 1158 AD : Jagadekamalla II
This is dated the 2nd year of the reign of the Chalukya king Pratapachakravarti Jagadekamalla (II), Siddharthi, Phalguna, su. 10 [Soma]vara corresponding probably to A.D. 1140 February 28 Wednesday; f.d.t.. 34. Somavara is probably a mistake for Sumyavara. The Mahamandalesvara Irungolarasa, Malla[rasa], Nirugarasa, Balarasa and Recharasa are said to have caused the construction of the temple of the god Kesava and granted some land for the service of the god.

The inscription mentions the date of its consecration as the Raudra Samvatsara, Thursday of Vaishaka Pournami in the third year of the reign of Kalyani Chalukya emperor Jagadekamalla, which corresponds to May 9, 1140 CE precisely.

This is damaged and not dated. It refers itself to the reign of the Chalukya king Jagadekamalladeva and mentions his feudatory, the Mahamandalesvara Vira-Pandyadeva as ruling over Nolambavadi thirty-twothousand. 

This is a little damaged and not dated. It refers itself to the reign of the Chalukya king Jagadekamalladeva and mentions his feudatory bammadeva-Chola-Maharaja as ruling over Govindavadi. 

Thursday, 12th February 1142 AD : Kannada Inscription has been found at Kodiparthi village near the famous temple town Gangapuram in Jadcherla mandal, Mahabubnagar district of Mahadandanayaka Govindanayaka

1148 AD : Old Kannada inscription (c.1148 AD) of Western Chalukya King Jagadekamalla II in Balagali, Devangiri, Karnataka.

This is damaged and dated the 13th year of the Chalukya king Jagadekamalla (II), cyclic year Sukla, Pausha, amavasye, Adivara corresponding probably to A.D. 1149 December 31, Saturday, not Sunday. It states that, when Katakada-Chandra-Dandanayaka's brother-in-law Madhuvarasa invaded the country of Kurumari with 40 horses, a servant of Malloja, the Heggade of the Mahamandalesvara Bhimarasa of Kurumari fell in a fight with Madhuvarasa, having slain a cavalier and a horse.

This is a little damaged and dated Saka 1072, Pramadi, Akshyatritiya-Amavasye, Surya-grahana, Vyatipata corresponding probably to A.D. 1150 March 30 Thursday; but there was no solar eclipse on that day. The record refers itself to the reign of Jagadekamalla (II) ruling from Kalyanapura. It states that when Jagadekamalla-Vira-Pandyadeva was governing Nolambavadi thirtytwo-thousand, a gift of land was made for the service of the god basavaesvara, whose temple had been built by Saudhare-Basavayya at Kuttangi in Kogali-nadu.

It is dated Chalukya-Vikrama year 16, Angiras, Phalguna, paurnamase, Somavara, Vyatipata. Chalukya-Vikrama-varsha 16 seems to be a mistake, for in that year Jagadekamalla to whose reign the record refers itself could not be ruling. If it is a mistake for Jagadekamalla-varsha 16, the date would correspond to A.D. 1153 February 9, Monday; f.d.t. . 79, The record states that Vikramadityarasa, uncle of Jagadekamall-Vira-Pandyadeva, gave to the Brahman Mahajanas of Baguli gadyanas 173, with the stipulation that with the interest thereon 13 Brahmans of the temple of Kalideva should be given provisions and 2 lamps should be burnt before the gods Kalideva and narasimhadeva. The gift was made for the merit of Sovaladevi, Vikramadityarasa and his wife Nagiyandeyarasi.

1155 AD : On a slab lying neat the pete-basappa temple at Chimmatumbalam, Adoni Mandal, Kurnool ditrict. This is damaged and dated Yuva, Pau[sha], su. 5, Somavara, Uttarayana in the reign of the Chalukya king Jagadekamalladeva (II), corresponding, probably, to A.D. 1155 November 30 Wednesday (not Monday). The Mahamandalesvara Ahavamalladeva is stated to have made a gift of land for the service of the god Nakearesvara set up by Harihar-Andar of Vasishtha-gotra. It is to be noted that though the record refers itself to the reign of Jagadekamall (II)

1156 AD : The inscription was installed by king Kanduri Udayanachoda, dating back to 1156 AD found at Vadaparthi village near Bhongir in Nalgonda, Telangana.

1158 AD : The stone inscription on a single granite stone was found on the banks of Charagonda Vagu, a local stream in Vavikollu, dating back to 1158 CE has been discovered and reported by the villagers of Vavikollu in Gundlapally mandal of Nalgonda district. The inscription was installed by king Kanduri Udayanachoda, who was the subordinate of Kalyani Chalukya king Jagadekamalla II. The orders were passed on a Sunday, which was Pournami (full moon night) of lunar eclipse on August 10, 1158, when the King had gifted his Raj Purohit Sarvadeva Somayajulu a village named ‘Bodavipparru.’


This is damaged and dated Saka 1082, Vikrama, Bhadrapada, punname, Brihaspativara, Soma-grahana, corresponding to A.D. 1160 August 18 Thursday, when there was a lunar eclipse. It refers itself to the reign of the Chalukya king Jagadekamalladeva and mention his feudatory Vira-Pandyadeva as ruling over Kadamalige thousand, Ballakunda three-hundred and Kogali five-hundred. In the presence of the fifty (Mahajanas) of Balguli, Dharmavve, wife of the Brahman general Chiddana, who was the son of the brave general Malapayya, and the daughter of Padmanabha, who was the son of the Brahman Dharmeya-Shadangi of Kasyapa-gotra, is said to have made a grant of land for the worship of the god Lakshminarayanadeva set up by herself in Baguli, for the pay of the sastra teacher and of a Purana reader and for the subsistence of the priests employed in the temple. Dharmavve is praised for her learning and character. 

1149 AD - 1164 : Tailapa III
1149 - 1150 AD : Tailapa-III or Kumara Tailapa tried to be independent from Jagadekamalla II and was defeated by Kakatiya Prola II and released. 

The inscriptions of the period 1150 - 1162 mention Jagadekamalla II in Anantapur Bellary region and Tailap III in the Dharwar-Bjapur and Raichur-Gulbarga regions, both ruling from Kalyanpura

4th June A.D. 1152 AD : Jukkal, Nizamabad
It is on a pillar in front of Hanuman temple. This inscription registers the gift of 20 and 12 marttars of land for the daily offerings and perpetual burning of the lamp to the gods Bijjesvaradeva and Nandi Betesvaradeva by mahamandalesvara Pereya Mallarasaru, during the reign of Trailokyamalladeva identifiable with Tailapa III.

1152 : On a beam of the Kashi-Vishvanatha temple – South Indian Inscriptions vol XV, no 48 – refers to the reign of the Western Chalukya king Tribhuvanamalla (Tailapa III) – dated in his third regnal year, corresponding 1152 CE – The inscription may refer to the reign of Vikramaditya VI, but his 3rd regnal year did not fall in Prajapati. The 3rd regnal year Prajapati, however fits in for the reign of Tailapa III. In that case, we have to assume that Tribhuvanamalla was Somesvara IV and that he was associated with his father Tailapa III in the administration of the kingdom from the beginning. The epigraph registers a gift of gold made by Perggadeyara Tribhuvanakesava described as the ‘dear son’ of the Thousand Mahajanas of Lokkigundi for the offerings to the god Kavatalesvara. The gift was entrusted to Somesvara-pandita, the acharya of the temple. A gift of land for the offerings to the same god made by Sovisetti is also recorded.

On a beam of the Kashi-Vishvanatha temple – South Indian Inscriptions vol XV, no 50 – refers to the reign of the Western Chalukya king Trailokyamalla (Tailapa III) – dated in his sixth regnal year, corresponding 1156 CE – It registers a gift of land made by Kaleyanayaka, son of Makestara Makimayya-nayaka to Monideva for his bhiksha. The donee in turn gave it for feeding the ascetics who visited the temple of Kavatala Chavundesvara at Lokkigundi. Kaleyanayaka is described as the son, i.e., lay disciple, of Monideva, who was the disciple of Samavedideva, the acharya of the temple of Ramesvara of Huligere.Epigraphia Carnatika vol XI, Davanagere taluk – dated 1160 CE – refers to the reign of the Western Chalukya king Tailapa III and Kalachuri king Bijjala II – genealogy of the Western Chalukya kings is provided, starting with Taila who took away the earth from the Rashtrakutas.

1154 AD : Bijapur, Bijapur Taluk, Bijpur District, Fifth pillar in Ark-killa
This inscription, which refers itself to the reign of Trailokyamalladeva, is dated in the 5th year of his reign Srimukha, Pushya Purnima, Friday, Lunar eclipse, corresponding regularly to A.D. 1154, January 1, Friday. 1157 AD : Haveri, Haveri Taluk, Dharwar District, Slab near the Kallumantapa
This inscription belonging to the reign of Trailokyamalladeva, is dated in the 8th year of his reign, Isvara, Pushya ba. 3, Monday. Uttarayanasamkranti. The details are irregular. The tithi cited fell on December 20, A.D. 1157, which was Friday. The Samkranti occurred on the 25th.

Epigraphia Carnatika vol XI, Davanagere taluk – dated 1164 CE – refers to the reign of the Western Chalukya king Tailapa III – Kalachuri king Bijjala was in service of the Western Chalukya king.

Western Chalukyan Empire was absorbed by Kakatiyas in Telangana region by Prolla II and the Great Hoyasala King Veera Ballala II.