Rashtrakuta Dynasty

753 AD - 973 AD : Rashtrakuta defeated Badami Chalukyas in 753 AD.
Founder : Dantidurga
Capitals : Manyakheta
Languages : Kannada, Sanskrit
Religion : Jainism, Hinduism

753 AD to 973 AD : Vemulavada Chalukyas (vassals to Rashtrakuta Dynasty) ruled Karimnagar and Nizamabad.

753 AD to 973 AD: Kakatiyas ruled as vassals to Rashrakuta ruled with kakatipura in warangal as capital. Also ruled koravi or kurravadi in warangal district.

753 AD - 756 AD : Dantidurga (735 AD - 756 AD) occupied all territories between the Godavari and Vima. Dantidurga is said to have conquered Kalinga, Kosala, Kanchi, Srisril, Malava, Lata etc. He annexed Maharashtra to his kingdom by defeating Chalukya King Kirtivarma with the help of Vemulawada Chalukya king Yudhamalla I (750 AD - 780 AD).

756 AD - 774 AD : Krishna I
Dantidurga was succeeded by his uncle Krishna I. He conquered the territories that were still under the Chalukyas and thereby competed conquest of the Chalukya territories. He also occupied Konkan. It is not known for certain the name of the country over which Rahappa used to rule. Vishnuvardhana of Vengi and the Ganga king of Mysore were defeated at the hands of the Rashtrakuta King Krishna I.

The Kailash Temple at Ellora was built by the Rashtrakuta King Krishna I. He was a great patron of art and architecture.

774 AD - 780 AD : Govinda II
Krishnaraja’s eventful career came to an end within a very short time and he was succeeded by his son Govindaraj who ruled for some time as Govinda II. 

His worthlessness as a ruler and his lack of interest in administration led to his deposition by his brother Dhruva who ascended the throne himself.

780 AD - 793 AD : Dhruva brother of Govinda II
Alampur, Jogulamba Gadwal District.
This inscription marks the first year in the reign of the king Dharavarsha. This might be the Rashtrakuta ruler Nirupama Dhruva (A.D. 780-92) of the Malkhed branch. His first regnal year may be approximately equated to A.D. 780. The epigraph seems to describe the arrangements made by Balavarmarasa for the conduct of religious-functions at Alampur. Mention is made of feeding one thousand persons on the festival of Mahanavami.

Pimpari plates of 775 AD mention Dhruva as the reigning emperor who revolted agains Govinda II and probably subdued by Govinda II and his allies.

The Dhulia grant of 779 and Garugadahalli inscription of 782 proclaim Dhruva the emperor.
The best ruler of the Rashtrakuta dynasty. He ruled for a short span of time but within this short time he entered into struggle with the Gurjara-Pratihara King Vatsyaraja and defeated him signally. He also like wise defeated the Pallavas of Kanchi and the Pala King Dharmapala of Bengal.

He earned titles like Kalivallabha, Srivallabha, Dharavarsha, Maharajadhiraja and Parameshvara.

793 AD - 814 AD : Govinda III
Dhruva was succeeded by Govinda III his son and with almost equal vigor as of his father. He succeeded in keeping the Gurjara power sufficiently under control. He defeated the great Gurjara King Nagabhatta II. It is said that the Pala King Dharmapala and his protégé Charayudh sought the help of Govinda III. 

Govinda III made the Rashtrakutas dynasty one of the most powerful dynasties of contemporary India. His kingdom spread up to the Vindhyas and Malava in the north and the river Tungabhadra to the south.

814 AD - 878 AD : Amoghavarsha I
Govinda III was succeeded by his son named Sarva, who is better known as Amoghavarsha. He took up the titles of Nripatunga, Maharajashanda, Vira-Narayana and Afisaya-dhavala.

The greatest king of the Rashtrakuta dynasty was Amoghavarsha I. As a warrior he was, however, no match with his father Govinda III, but he succeeded in defeating the Eastern Chalukya kings.

Amoghavarsha I set up a new capital at Manyakheta (now Malkhed in Karnataka State) and during his reign Broach became the best port of his kingdom.

Amoghavarsha I was a great patron of education and literature. From the evidence of the Jaina works it is known that Amoghavarsha was converted into Jainism by Jinasena, a Jaina monk. Amoghavarsha spent the accumulated wealth of his predecessors to beautify his kingdom.

Suleman, an Arab merchant, in his account called Amoghavarsha I as one of the four greatest kings of the world, the other three being the Caliph of Bagdad, the king of Constantinople and the emperor of China.

Amoghavarsha died in AD 878, leaving the kingdom to Krishna II

878 AD - 913 AD : Krishna II
Amoghavarsha ruled for about 35 years and he was succeeded by his son Krishna II who in his turn was succeeded by Indra III.

1st April, 907 AD : Velmajala, Bhuvanagiri Mandal. : Rashtrakuta
This inscription is on a slab near ruined construction outside the village. The inscription refers to Akalavarsha (i.e. Krishna II) and records the gift of 100 marttars of land to a basadi; and a garden by Ravi Chandrayya, a subordinate of the king.

913 AD - 929 AD : Indra III grandon of Krishna II
Indra III was a powerful king. He defeated and deposed Mahipala.
913 AD : Padaturu, Nalgonda, Nityavarsha (Indra III) 
This Kannada inscription, engraved on a pillar, set up in front of Ramalingesvarasvami temple, belongs to the reign of Rashtrakuta king Nityavarsha (i.e., Indra III). It refers to mahasamanta Nurmadidhavala and to his subordinate chief Gommarasa, who was administering Kollipaka nadu-7000 division. Dated Saka 835, Srimukha (A.D 913), it registers the grant of several lands along with income from tax siddhaya by Chamangamunda, son of Aydamayya, to the temple raised by the former. Aydamayya is stated to have been ruling over Padaturu.

920 AD Koravi Inscription: The record recounts that the sovereignty of the Vengi kingdom which was eclipsed (asta) as a result of the invasion of the Rashtraknța king Krishna II, was regained and restored to Chalukya Bhima (892-922), Lord of Vengi, bearing the title Vishnuvardhana and the epithet Saucha-kandarpa. The heroic chief who played a leading role in this achievement by dint of his bravery and prowess of arms was Kusumayudha of the Ranamarda family. In the course of this alien invasion the ancestral estate of the Ranamarda family also fell into the hands of the enemy, but it was recovered. In recognition of this signal service Chalukya Bhima shared half of his kingdom with Kusumayudha who is stated to have been ruling the Vengi country consisting of Manchikonda province and other tracts.

929 AD - 930 AD : Amoghavarsha II

930 AD - 933 AD : Govinda IV brother of Amoghavarsha II
He became the Rashtrakuta emperor in 930 as described in the Kalasa record of Chikmagalur.

At least two inscriptions and two copper plate grants of Govinda IV have been found. The first inscription, found at Ḍanḍapur in present-day Dharwad district, is dated to 930; and the second, found at Sānglī, is dated to 933

933 AD - 939 AD : Amoghavarsha III
Amoghavarsha III whose Kannada name was Baddega, was in exile in Tripuri and was a younger brother of Indra III and uncle to Govinda IV. He came to power with the help of feudatory King Arikesari of Vemulavada and other vassals who revolted against Govinda IV and placed Amoghavarsha III on the throne by 935 AD. This is known from the records of Kannada poet Adikavi Pampa, who was patronised by King Arikesari.

Kajipet, Warangal District.
Dated Nandana (A.D. 932-33). Records some awards to the local officials and some specifications of fines for offences. The king’s feudatory Satyasraya Bhimarasa is referred to as Mahamandalesvara a subordinate of rashtrakuta king Amoghavarsha.

939 AD - 967 AD : Krishna III
12th July, A.D. 940 : Chennur, Adilabad District. : Rashtrakuta
This inscription is on a pillar near the dhvajastambha in the Siva temple, dated Saka 863, Sarvari, Sravana su. 5, Sunday=940 A.D., July 12. The Saka year was current. Seems to record a grant of an agrahara on the bank of the Godavari to Tammayya of Nanayuru by Baddega, son of Gunagarasa of the Chalukya family and a subordinate of Arikesari-arasa who is himself described as a scion of the Chalukya family and as feudatory of the Rashtrakuta king (Tribhuvanamalla-vamanta-chuda-mani).

The last powerful and efficient king of the Rashtrakutas was Krishna III. He had a prolonged struggle with Mahipala, the Gurjara king. He also succeeded in conquering Tanjore and Kanchi. In the middle of the tenth century for a time he succeeded in defeating the Tamil kings of Chola kingdom. 

30th August, A.D. 946 : Mallikarjun Palli, Sadasivapeta, Medak District.

Kannada and Telugu-Kannada inscription is inscribed on a stone slab in front of the Mallikarjuna Swamy temple. And very much worn out. Mentions Maha Samantha Kommana of Panduravadi, who made a gift of wetland measuring 2 marttars as siddhaya as per the thirty span rod, the rajamana in the grama Baliya Pipparige after washing the feet of Bankeyabhattaraka of Isvaralaya. Also refers to Rechayya of the Ayyavamsa, making a (details not legible) corollary gift of land in the grama of Pipparige.

Dharmapuri, Karimnagar.
This undated inscription was issued by Aitavarmarasa, of the Haihaya family, whose overlord was the Rashtrakuta king Krishna. It refers to the gift of hundred mattars of land situated in the village Tumbula of Veligonda-12, as siddhaya yielding the revenue of drammas by Ayyana on the day of asterism Uttarashadha to one of the mahajanas named Revana. It also mentions the names of Dharmyara along with Mallapura, probably the capital of the Haihaya subordinate. 

The Rashtrakuta kings maintained a friendly relation with the Arabs of Sind. When the Gurjara-Pratihara was engaged in fierce struggle against the Arabs, the Rashtrakutas were profiting by carrying on trade with the Arabs. By way of this business relation a large number of Arab merchants came to the Rashtrakuta kingdom. Suleiman was the Arab merchant and was the most celebrated of them.

But towards the end of the same century the Rashtrakuta King Kaka was defeated and deposed by Taila or Tailapa, the Chalukya king of Kalyani. With Kaka’s defeat the Rashtrakuta power came to an end.

In 973, seeing confusion in the Rashtrakuta empire after a successful invasion of their capital by the ruler of the Paramara dynasty of Malwa, Tailapa II Western Chalukyan King, a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty ruling from Bijapur region defeated his overlords and made Manyakheta his capital.

Feudatories of Western Chalukyas

1033 AD - 1049 AD : Sankaragandarasa
The Kannada inscription, engraved on a pillar set up in front of the Anjaneyasvam temple in the village, belongs to the Kalyana chalukya king, Trailokyamalladeva. Being dated saka 971 A.D. 1049 ,it describes the eulogy of his chief Sankaragandarasa, who while camping at Kondur, made a grant of twelve mattars of land for the worship and food offerings to the deity Mahesvaradeva of Kondur for the purpose of giving alms and feeding the ascetics and Brahmanas on the occasion of kanya-samkranti.

1070 AD  - 1077 AD: Asaga Bhupati of Rashtrakuta
24th December, 1074 AD : Kolanupaka : Kannada
This inscription in Kannada prose is one of the few in which the name of the King is omitted. It is dated Saka 996 Ananda Uttarayana Samkranti (A.D. 1074 December 24, Wednesday).

It records that Mahamandalesvara (Asa)ga rasa the protector of Kollipaka, granted one mattar of gadde (wet) land to a brahman named Suraya on the occasion of Uttarayana Samkranti.

The donor's name is unfortunately not clear, but judging from his titles Lattalurpuravaresvara and Rattaradheya he appears to have been a chief of the Rashtrakuta family.