Telangana Forests

The State of Telangana is endowed with rich diversity of Flora and Fauna. The State has dense Teak forests on the northern part along the banks of river Godavari. As per the Champion & Seth Classification of Forest Types (1968), the forests in Telangana belong to three Forest Type Groups, which are further divided into 12 Forest Types.  

Teak (Tectona grandis) no longer figures in the top five tree species in Telangana. Felling of the timber tree species has increased so much that the inventory indicates that teak no longer figures among the top five species. This is revealed by the latest report ‘State of Environment Report-TS’, sponsored by the ministry of environment, forests, climate changes. The report has recently been released in the state.

Telangana State is known for its rich heritage in biological diversity distributed in 9 agro climatic regions. Among the flora, the state harbours a total of 2,800 taxa belonging to 1,051 genera under 185 families. This accounts for 16% of the Angiosperms known from India. Of these, 2,071 species belonging to 150 families and 796 genera are Dicotyledons and 729 species belonging to 255 genera and 35 families are Monocotyledons.

Among the fauna, Telangana State is rich with 108 species of mammals that include Tiger, Leopard, Sloth Bear, Giant Squirrel, Hyena, Fox, Wild Dog, Wild Boar, Indian Bison(Gaur), Spotted Deer, Barking Deer, Black Buck, Four-horned Antelope, Blue Bull, Sambar, Mouse Deer, Honey Badger, Civets,Jungle Cats, Otter, Pangolin, Bats, Tree Shrew, Common Langur,etc.

Telangana's native vegetation can be broadly categorized into three types:
  1. Tropical Deciduous forests
  2. Tropical moist deciduous forests
  3. Tropical thorn forests

Tropical Deciduous forests
Adilabad, Karimnagar, Warangal, and Khammam are home to tropical dry deciduous woods. Tree species, including teak, bamboo, tamarind, and mango, define these woodlands. During the dry season, the trees in these woods lose their leaves, covering the forest floor with a layer of dried leaves.

Tropical moist deciduous forests
Mahabubnagar, Nalgonda, and Rangareddy are areas of tropical moist deciduous woods. These forests have many different types of trees, including mango, teak, sal, bamboo, and sal. Deer, wild boar, and monkeys are just a few of the many species of fauna that call these forests home.

Tropical thorn forests
The areas around Hyderabad, Medak, and Nizamabad are home to tropical thorn forests. Acacia, Prosopis, and Butea trees distinguish these woodlands. These trees contain thorns, and thorny bushes and shrubs are all over the forest floor.

Telangana is also home to a wide range of additional plants and trees, such as palm trees, banyan trees, and eucalyptus, in addition to these three primary forms of vegetation. Various flora and animals may be found in the state's national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, including the Kinnerasani and Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary. Telangana's natural vegetation is abundant and diversified, essential to the state's ecology and economy. Numerous tree species may be found in the state's woods, including teak, bamboo, sandalwood, and other floral plants, shrubs, and herbs.

The State Government has taken up a massive greening programme, 'Telangana Ku Harita Haram' in the State to plant and protect 230 crore seedlings over a period of 4 years. This initiative aims at achieving the twin objectives of increasing the forest cover and reduce pressure on the existing forest resources, through massive community participation by Vana Samrakshna Samithis (VSS) and Eco-Development Committees (EDCs) in Protected Areas and Watershed Development Committees in the Watershed areas.

Recorded Forest Area (RFA) in the State is 26,904 sq km which is 24.00% of its geographical area, of which 20,353 sq km is Reserved Forest, 5,939 sq km is Protected Forest and 612 sq km is Unclassed Forests. In Telangana, during the period 1st January 2015 to 5th February 2019, a total of 9,420 hectares of forest land was diverted for non-forestry purposes

The reserved, protected and unclassed forests are 75.65%, 22.07% and 2.28% of the recorded forest area in the State respectively. However, as the digitized boundary of recorded forest area from the State covers 26,989.00 sq km,

Geographical Area : 11,231 hectares
Forests : 2,540 hectares (22.6%)
State Animal : Jinka (Chital Deer)
State Bird : Palapitta (Indian Roller)
State Flower : Tandgedu (Tanners Casia)
State Tree : Jammi Chettu (Prosopis Cineraria)
State Fruit : Mango
State Fish : Korameenu or Korramatta (Murrel Fish)

State Tree - Jammi Chettu or Prosopis Cineraria
The Jammi Chettu, also called the Prosopis Cineraria, is the state tree of Telangana. This tree is indigenous to the Indian subcontinent and tolerates the hot, dry climate there. The Jammi Chettu is a small to medium-sized tree that can withstand brutal conditions because of its vast root system and rough, greyish-brown bark. Jammi Chettu trees produce tiny, yellow-green blooms in the spring and their fluffy, light green leaves. The wood from the tree is highly prized since it can be used to build, build things, and make furniture. Various animals, including birds and insects, can find shade and shelter under the Jammi Chettu, which is significant for the area's environment.

State animal- Chital or Spotted Dear
The Spotted Deer, often called the Chital or Axis Deer, is the state animal of Telangana. Native to the Indian subcontinent, this beautiful mammal is easily identified by its characteristic white spots on its reddish-brown coat. The spotted deer's main foods are grass, leaves, and fruits. It is a gregarious creature that gathers in herds of up to 30 people. The Spotted Deer plays a significant role in Telangana's ecology by regulating specific plant species' growth, and maintaining the ecosystem's equilibrium. Deer are hunted for their meat and hide and are another well-liked game animal. The Spotted Deer has been designated as the state animal of Telangana.

Three National Parks and nine Wildlife Sanctuaries constitute the Protected Area network of the State covering 5.08% of its geographical area.

National Parks 
Wild Life Sanctuaries
Sacred groves are small patches of native vegetation traditionally been protected on the grounds of religious faith, these are dedicated to deities, protected by the local communities considering it as the abode of their ancestral deities or spirits. 

There are 65 sacred groves documented in Telangana but conservationists say the real figure is much larger and government should take up extensive documentation. In Kerala around 1,500 sacred groves have been documented.
  1. Adilabad Dankanapally Sacred Grove
  2. Adilabad Jainath Sacred Grove
  3. Adilabad Keslapur Sacred Grove
  4. Adilabad Kunthala Waterfalls Sacred Grove
  5. Adilabad Mahagoan Sacred Grove
  6. Adilabad Narnoor Sacred Grove
  7. Adilabad Pochara Falls Sacred Grove
  8. Adilabad Sadalpur Sacred Grove
  9. Adilabad Sirichelma Sacred Grove
  10. Adilabad Tangri Madra Sacred Grove
  11. Adilabad Yekantapur Sacred Grove
  12. Asifabad Ginnedhari Sacred Grove
  13. Nirmal Basara Saraswati Temple Sacred Grove
  14. Hyderabad
  15. Babasharfuddin Pahad Sacred Grove miralam tank
  16. Chiran Palace sacred Grove{Brahmananda Reddy National Park) 400 acres
  17. Guruvayur Temple Sacred Grove, 3ha
  18. Maulali Darga Sacred Grove
  19. Nowbath Pahad Sacred Grove
  20. O.U.Campus Sacred Grove – Nagadevata / Gyanalaxmi temple
  21. Karimnagar
  22. Kaleswaram Temple Sacred Grove
  23. Konda Gattu Sacred Grove
  24. Ramagiri Fort Srirama Temple Sacred Grove
  25. Vemulawada Temple Sacred Grove
  26. Khammam
  27. Parnasala Sacred Grove
  28. Nugur Fort
  29. Sthambhadri, Khammam Fort Sacred Grove
  30. Medak
  31. AlIadurg Sacred Grove
  32. Kumaravelli Sacred Grove Siddipet Mandal, temple of Mallikarjuna Swamy
  33. Mallamma Temple Sacred Groves dubbak
  34. YedupayaJa Sacred Grove - Durga Devi.
  35. Nalgonda
  36. Chandrumgutta(Arur) Sacred Grove
  37. Ethipothala Sacred Grove nagarjunakonda
  38. Narketpalli Sacred Grove - Ramalingeswara swami / Machiyagiri Laxminarayana swami
  39. Yadagirigutta Sacred Grove - Narasimha Swamy
  40. Nizamabad
  41. Vellutla Sacred Grove
  42. Rangareddy
  43. Alwal temple area Sacred Grove
  44. Ananthagiri area Sacred Grove
  45. Chilukur Balaji temple area Sacred Grove 6ha
  46. Keesaragutta bill area Sacred Grove Kusaiguda village
  47. Kharmanghat Hanuman temple Sacred Grove osmania university
  48. Maheswaram Sacred Grove
  49. Majeedpur Venkateswara Temple Sacred Grove
  50. Pahar-e-Sherief Sacred Grove
  51. Parameswar Gutta area Sacred Grove – shiva
  52. Sanghi temple complex Sacred Grove
  53. Warangal
  54. Kotilinga Kshetram Sacred Grove 11 acre Bollikunta village
  55. Madikonda Sacred Grove Kazipet
  56. Padmakshi Gutta Sacred Grove - 1 Padmaksharnrna
  57. Mahabubnagar
  58. Jellupenta
  59. Kadalivanam
  60. Koyalakonda area
  61. Kurumurthi Konda
  62. Maniyamkonda
  63. Saileshwaram
  64. Singavatnam
  65. Umamaheswaram
  66. Yettam
Total plant species 2800
Plants used in traditional medicine 1800
Rice (Vadlu) 150
Jowar (Jonnalu) 75
Bornyard millets (Odalu) 5
Italian millets (Korralu) 10
Little millets (Samalu) 7
Kodo millets (Arikelu) 10
Pearl millets (Sajjalu) 10
Proso millets (Varigelu) 2
Finger millets (Ragulu) 7
Gingelly (Nuvvulu) 15
Chickpea (Sanagalu) 8
Green Gram (Pesalu) 8
Black Gram (Minumulu) 10
Cowpea (Alasandalu) 10
Pigeon Pea (Kandulu) 15
Horse Gram (Ulavalu) 6

Annelids 163
Arthropods 1337
Molluscs 480
Freshwater fish 180
Amphibians 22
Reptiles 103
Birds 486
Mammals 108

Urban Forest Blocks Developed/In Progress
  1. Adilabad 
    • Mavala 
    • Kadam 
  2. Bhadradri Kothagudem Punukula 
    • Chatakonda 
    • Uragutta 
    • Suraram 
    • Rathamgutta 
  3. Hyderabad 
    • Jublee Hills 
  4. Jagtial 
    • Venkatraopet
    • Jagtial 
  5. Jayashankar Bhupalpally 
    • Kompally extn. 
    • Mahadevpur 
    • Jakaram-I 
  6. Kamareddy 
    • Lingareddy 
  7. Khammam 
    • Velugumatla 
    • Lankapally 
  8. Kumarambheem
    1. Asifabad Ada RF 
    2. Vempally 
  9. Mahabubabad 
    • Jammandlapally 
  10. Mahabubnagar 
    • Appannapalli 
  11. Mancherial 
    • Chennur 
    • Rally 
    • Indaram 
    • Tandur 
  12. Medak 
    • Narsapur 
    • Manoharabad 
    • Wadiaram & Polampally 
    • Parkibanda-I 
  13. Medchal Malkajigiri 
    1. Chengicherla
    2. Medpally -I & II
    3. Narepally - I & II 
    4. Dulapally 
    5. Kandlakoi 
    6. Nagaram 
    7. Yadgarpally-I & Yadagarapalli - II (UN)
    8. Dharmaram & Upperpally (UN) Cluster 
    9. Keesara 
    10. Gajularamaram, Borampet 
    11. Turkapally 
    12. Lalgadi-Malakpet 
    13. Gowdepally
    14. Pochampally Kalan & Pochampally Khurd Cluster 
    15. Tumkunta & Shamirpet (UN) Cluster 
    16. Yellampet (UN) 
  14. Mulugu 
    • Tadwai 
    • Nuguru 
    • Laknavaram 
  15. Nagarkurnool 
    • Kollapur 
  16. Nalgonda 
    • Nellikal 
    • Gollaguda I 
    • Gollaguda II 
  17. Narayanapet 
    • Eklaspur 
  18. Nirmal 
    • Chincholi 
    • Jam 
    • Maskapur 
  19. Nizamabad 
    • Sarangapoor 
    • Mamidipally 
  20. Peddapally 
    • Kundanpally 
  21. Rajanna Sircilla 
    • Pothireddypally 
  22. Rangareddy 
    1. Gurramguda 
    2. Chilkur 
    3. Maajidgadda 
    4. Jalpally 
    5. Gandiguda 
    6. Hayatnagar, Kuntloor, Mansoorabad & Quttabulapur Cluster 
    7. Domnair 
    8. Mudmiyal 
    9. Nadergul I & II 
    10. Madannguda 
    11. Kamadhan 
    12. Sirigiripur 
    13. Pallegadda 
    14. Manyamkancha 
    15. Amberpet Kalan 
    16. Bacharam 
    17. Srinagar & Padmati Kancha Cluster 
    18. Maisaram, Nagaram & Nandpally Cluster 
    19. Turkayamjal 
    20. Gollur 
    21. Kothaguda 
    22. Mangalpally (RR) 
    23. Gaganpahad 
    24. Eliminedu, (RR) Gutalakancha, Kongarakalan (UN), Kongarakalan & Salonidubba Cluster 
    25. Tummaloor 
    26. Kawadipally 
  23. Sangareddy 
    1. Zaheerabad 
    2. Jukal Khurd 
    3. Mambapur & Nallavally Cluster 
    4. Khazipally & Kistaipally Cluster 
    5. Bonthapally, Jinnaram, Mangapet, Nagawaram, Palam & Rayapally Cluster 
  24. Siddipet 
    1. Marpadaga 
    2. Chintamadaka 
    3. Gajwel Shareef, Dharmareddypally, & Mailaram Cluster 
  25. Suryapet 
    1. Indragonda 
  26. Vikarabad 
    1. Ananthagiri 
    2. Nagasamundar-I 
    3. Anantharam 
    4. Jafferpally 
  27. Wanaparthy 
    1. Wanaparthy 
  28. Warangal 
    1. Khanapur 
  29. Hanumakonda
    1.  Elkathurthi 
  30. Yadadri Bhuvanagiri 
    1. Lakkaram II 
    2. Somajipalli 
    3. Raigiri - I 
    4. Raigiri - II 
    5. Parvathapur 
    6. Rachakonda 
    7. Bibinagar 
    8. Kondamadugu 
    9. Jalalpur 
    10. Choutuppal