Nalgonda District History

The history of Nalgonda dates back to the Palaeolithic age. On the basis of the gradual evolution of the lithic material, the pre-historic period is studied under the following heads.

Palaeolithic Age

During this period, Man fashioned his tools and weapons by chipping hard stones of convenient size and shape. This feature is testified by the findings of an extra-ordinarily interesting unifacial Palaeolithic implements of the Soan type at Yeleshwaram.

Neolithic Age

Traces of Neolithic culture were found at Chota Yelupu, where sling stones and other objects of interest were unearthed. The existence of Megalithic culture was revealed by the discovery of innumerable burials at various places like Tipparti, Nakrekal, Nalgonda etc.

300 BC - 185 BC : Mauryan Empire
The political history of the district commences with the Mauryas. Mauryas, during the reign of Asoka, the Great held their sway over this region. Later the region has come under the over lordship of Satavahanas

230 BC – 220 AD : Satavahanas ( Were vassals of Mauryan Empire)​
It was during this period the region established trade contacts with Roman empire.

220 AD - 250 AD :Ikshvaku Tribe
Ikshvakus attained control over the region and ruled with their capital Vijayapuri. During this period Sakas and Scythians settled in this region. Buddhism flourished during this period.

250 AD - 380 AD : Vakataka Dynasty

380 AD - 611 AD : Vishnukundins started as vassals to Vakatakas and became independent Kings.
Founder : Indravarma (380 AD - 394 AD)
Capitals : Amrabad in Mahaboonagar
Indrapala in Nalgonda
Bhuvanagiri in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district
Keesaragutta in Rangareddy
Eluru, Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh
Languages : Telugu, Sanskrit
Religion : Hinduism (Vaisnavism) Ruled most of the Telangana region Rangareddy, Medak, Khammam, Karimnagar, Warangal, Nalgonda, Mahabubnagar

Like many other dynasties that rose to imperial power during 4th to 8th Century AD, the origins of Vishnukundina Dynasty are also shrouded with mystery.

All the inscriptions were written in sanskrit. Tummallagudem inscriptions have become the chief sources to reconstruct the dynasty.

Vishnukundin kings called as Sriparvateyas of the kings belonging to the Sri Parvata.

380 AD - 394 AD : Indravarma
Started his rule from Amrabad in current Nagarkurnool district and extended it to Bhuvanagiri, Ramannapeta in current Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district and Keesaragutta in current Medchal-Malkajgiri district.

394 AD - 419 AD : Madhavavarma I
His kingdom was limited to combined Nalgonda and Mahabubnagar districts. At that time remaining areas of Telangana was under the rule of Vakatakas.

419 AD - 456 AD : Govindavarman I
Tummalagudem Inscription issued by Govindavarman I in his 37th regnal year in the Telugu Month Vaisakha on Purnima (full moon) day.

37th Regnal Year villages named Ermadala and Penkaparu
In the formal portion of the grant (lines 13-26) it is stated that on the full moon day of the month of Vaisakha in the thirty-seventh regnal year of his own (atmanah) the king Govindavarman, being desirous of making a gift for the enjoyment of the Buddhist Sangha (line 20) granted for the merit of his own parents and of all living creatures (line 21) two villages named Ermadala and Penkaparu (line 23) with certain privileges (enumerated) in favour of the monastery built by his own chief queen Paramamahadevi (line 22). Both the jayanti (birth) as well as parinirvana (death) of the Buddha are to be celebrated on the Vaisakhi-Purnima day. Perhaps on that account the king. Govindavarman had chosen that auspicious day for his grant to the Buddhist monks.

456 AD - 504 AD : Madhavavarma II
Wife : Vakataka Princess Mahadevi
Ruled at least 48 years

504 AD - 508 AD - Devavarma
Devavarma ruled for a short period of time, died fighting with Simhavarman III of Pallava Dynasty during the rule of Vishnugopa II (c.500 - 525 A.D)

508 AD - 555 AD : Madhava Varma III
Ruled atleast 47 years

504 AD - 528 AD : Vikramendra Varman I
Son of Vakataka queen Mahadevi and Madhava Varma II

528 AD – 555 AD : Indra Bhattarakavarma or Indravarman II
Ruled at least 27 years

555 AD - 569 AD : Vikramendra Varman II
Vikramendravarman II is said to have adopted a certain Madhavaraja as his son. 
Queen Paramabhattaikamahadevi descended from the royal family known as Prithvimula, caused to be erected a monastery known after her own name Paramabhattaikamahavihara at Indrapura to display, as it were the wealth of Sri-Govindaraja. 

566 AD : Tummalagudem, Nalgonda.
Sanskrit and Southern Characters.
These records are present in Navodaya Samiti, Hyderabad. Both the Tumulaguda sets, written in Sanskrit language and Southern characters belong to the Vishnu Kundin dynasty. One of them, in characters of about the fourth-fifth centuries A.D., was issued in the thirty- seventh year of the reign of Maharaja Govindavarman, son of Maharaja Madhavavarman, and grandson of Maharaja Indra-varman. It records that the king granted two villages called Embudala and Penkapara to the vihara of the senior-queen (agra-mahishi) Parama-mahadevi. The other set refers itself to the reign of Vikramendra-bhattaraka Varman alias Uttamasraya and is dated in his eleventh regnal year and in Saka 488 (A.D. 566-67). It records the grant of the village Irundoro, by the king, to the same vihara built at Indrapura. It also refers to the defeat of the Pallava ruler Simha by Uttamasraya.

569 AD - 611 AD : Madhavavarma IV
Vishnukundina Empire expanded under its able ruler Janssraya Madhav Varma IV. He consolidated his position in Vengi. An incomplete work on Sanskrit poetics called Janasraya Chando Vichiti was attributed to Madhav Varma IV, who bore the title of 'Janasraya'. Generally, Sanskrit (not Telugu) enjoyed royal patronage under the Vishnukundins. Madhav Varma IV had to face the Chalukyan assault in his last years of rule.

Polamaru Grant by Madhavarman is dated in his 40th year. The day on which the grant was made was Phalguni Purnima on which lunar eclipse occurred. 

543 AD - 753 AD : Badami Chalukyas

753 AD - 982 AD : Rashtrakuta Dynasty

913 AD : Padaturu, Nalgonda, Nityavarsha (Indra III)
This Kannada inscription, engraved on a pillar, set up in front of Ramalingesvarasvami temple, belongs to the reign of Rashtrakuta king Nityavarsha (i.e., Indra III). It refers to mahasamanta Nurmadidhavala and to his subordinate chief Gommarasa, who was administering Kollipaka nadu-7000 division. Dated Saka 835, Srimukha (A.D 913), it registers the grant of several lands along with income from tax siddhaya by Chamangamunda, son of Aydamayya, to the temple raised by the former. Aydamayya is stated to have been ruling over Padaturu.

Velamaila, Nalgonda. : Out of four inscriptions engraved in the Hale-Kannada script and belonging to the Rastrakuta king Krishna, the two records the gift of lands to the Jaina basadi made by Ravichandra, a military officer of the king. 

982 AD - 1158 AD : Western Chalukyas (Kalyani Chalukyas)
Western Chalukyas of Kalyana, who exercised their sway over the present Nalgonda District with Kollipaka, Modern Kolanupaka as headquarters, situated in Bhongir taluk, Nalgonda district which was a subdivision of Kollipaka – 7000. 

The Western Chalukas exercised their authority in the district of Nalgonda, with assistance of number of Subordinate chiefs holding the rank of Mahamandaleshwar, besides a major feudatory family namely the Kanduri Cholas, with kanduru in Mahaboob Nager District as their headquarters apart from political and administration matters, these inscriptions furnish information about religious and economic aspects also.

In and around s Panagallu town, which was a trade centre during 11th century river Musi divided this area into two small kingdoms Eastern side of Musi region under the kingdom of Kalyanapura, while the Chalukya emperor Tribhavana malladeva was ruling victoriously, his subordinate Mahapradhana Govindarajulu who was ruling Kondapalli from 300 A.D. to 1123 A.D.

Panagallu had a great importance only because of Panaguallu tank. Which was built ambankments for the storage of rainy water. Stored water has been utilizing for agriculture, now drinking purpose. Panagallu was attracting by pilgrims, luggage transporters, who are taking rest and shelter at Panagallu per a period of timebeing, gradually this place became centre for traveller peoples & traders. 

1042 - 1068 AD : Someswara I
1049 AD : Sankaragandarasa was ruling over Kollipakanadu-20,00
Indraplangaram, Ramannapet Taluk, Nalgonda District. : [Rashtrakuta].
This inscription is on a pillar attached to the gate of the ruined temple at the foot of the hill. Partly built in. Seems to record the gift of wetland along with the income from siddhaya to the Jayadira-Jinalaya by the chief Ratta Sankaragandarasa bearing the epithets Jayadhira, Bhuvanaikarama, Abhimana-dhavala, Rattarameru etc. In characters of about the 10th century A.D. 

1088 AD - 1097 AD : Tonda II
Koppole, Nalgonda.
1092 AD : This inscription, engraved on a slab lying near a tank opposite the Muthyalamma temple, is in Telugu language and Characters and is dated in the Chalukya Vikrama era (year not specified) Angirasa (A.D. 1092-93). It registers a gift of land in the village Jalapattu for the upkeep of the lake at Kroproli and for the maintenance of the Rudresvaradevara-satra, on the occasion of Uttarayan-Sankranti, by Kanduri-Tondaya-Cholamaharaju. The gift was entrusted to Chilyakamti-Anamtasaka-Pandita.

1097 AD - 1104 AD : Mallikarjuna Choda
1098 AD : A number of newly-discovered inscriptions refer to the political conditions prevailing in the twelfth-thirteenth centuries A.D. Among these, mention may be made of the one from Vellala: dated in Saka 1020 (A.D. 1098) and written in Sanskrit language it refers to Mahamandalesvara Mallikarjuna of Kanduri Choda family and traces the genealogy of the family to Karikala and Eruva Bhima. The extension of certain territorial divisions namely Cheraku and Eruva to Telingana for the first time is significant.

1116 AD : Bhimarasa
1116 AD : Panugallu inscriptions dated A.D. 1116 states that, while the Chalukya emperor Tribhuvanamalladeva was ruling the kingdom of the earth, Bhimarasa a relation of Kanduru Somaladevi daughter of. Jayasimha II (1015 - 1042 AD) installed Gangadevi and Gangeswara and submitted to the emperor who was camping in the uppayana (vidu) at Kollipaka, that he should consider this as his own work of charity (dharma). The emperor having complied with Bhimarasa’s request, made gifts of land in Bhatti – 12 for the offerings of Gangeswaradeva after washing the feet of vighneswaradeva. This inscription gives message about the water importance and the respect must be on Vighneswara pandita.

1122 AD : Gokarnachoda I (1098 AD - 1136)
1122 AD : Another Panugallu inscription dated A.D. 1122 states that Mahamandaleshwar Kanduri Gokarna Choda Maharaja ruling the earth, who have granted whose Madugulapalli (Madugula) inclused in Kukkadam (Gukkadam 30) to Bhimana Peggada and also adluru (Addaluru) which was one of the part in Amanagallu (Namanakanti – 70), granted to Doddayabhatlu before that ruler Gokarna Choda washing foots of his said above subordinates. This was shows the greatness of the king Kanduri Gokarna Choda.

1158 AD - 1323 AD : Kakatiya Dynasty 
Cheruku Chiefs Amarabad Branch
1253 AD - 1265 AD : Immadi Visvanatha son of Cheraku Bollayya or Bolla II 
1253 AD : Immadi Viswanatha granted villages of Lenjinta and Surepalli as agraharas as per epigraph of Jalalpuram Village , Thirumalagiri Mandal , Nalgonda District 

Amrabad area is ruled by Cherukureddy kings. Inscriptions of these kings at old Shiva temple at Amrabad in 1258 A.D. describes about these kings. The king ruled under the capital of Amrabad and also some parts in Nalgonda district.

1265 AD - 1270 AD : Immadi Devaya II (son of Immadi Visvanatha)
Immadi Devaya appears in the inscriptions of his two sons from the Kalvakolanu region, a part of Kandurunadu.

1267 AD - 1268 AD  : Panagallu Yadavas
1267 AD : Sarangapani third son of Singana
The Panugallu inscription dated A.D.1267 states that, while Mahamandaleshwar Kaktiya Manuma Rudradeva Maharaja (Rudramadevi 1262-89) was ruling the kingdom, praudhapratapa chakravarthi sarangapanideva maharajulu of the yadava family was administering panumganti-sthala 

1268 AD : Mahamandalesvara Vishwanath Maharaja
1267-68 AD : Rahamantapur.
This inscription is on a stone pillar now in the compound of the office of the Director of Archaeology and Museums, Hyderabad. States that, mahamandalesvara Visvanatha maharaj of the Yadava lineage made a gift of the village of Guddupalli with all its tanks and all its incomes to the Rachaguru Santasiva Desika Mallaradhya. It is interesting that, Visvanatha Maharaja bears a very long string of titles of which, Kakkaladeva-Sirah-khandana (he who cut off the head of Kakkaladeva), Parabhavikrita Ballalana (the vanquisher, or Ballala) and Bandikrita Andhrarajena (the capturer of the king of the Andhra country) are important. Most of the titles enumerated in this record are also found in the prasasti of the Yadava King

Kayasthas (1239 AD - 1297 AD)
They were originally stationed by the king Ganapatideva at Panugallu as the governors of that part of the kingdom.
1239 AD - 1258 AD : Ganagaya Sahini
1258 AD - 1268 AD : Jannigadeva (Gangayasahani sisters eldest son)
1268 AD - 1272 AD : Tripurari I (brother of Jannigadeva)
1272 AD - 1294 AD: Ambadeva II (brother of Tripurari I) Ambadeva revolted against Kakatiyas and killed Rudramadevi in a battle and was later defeated by Kakatiya Prataparudra.

Chandupatla inscription dated A.D. 1289, states that as the Kakatiya queen Rudramadevi departed to the world of the god, puvu mummadi a servant of a certain mallikarjuna nayaka, made a gift of land to the god chandupatle somanathadevara so that, both the Kakatiya queen and his master might attain sivaloka.

During Prataparudra's time the kingdom was annexed to the Tughluq empire in A.D. 1323.

1323 AD - 1336 AD : Tughlaq Dynasty 
During Muhammad-bin-tughluq's period, Musunuri chief Kapayanayaka ceded a part of Nalgonda to Ala-ud-din Hasan Bahman Shah. Later the region came under the rule of Recherlas of Rachakonda and Devarakonda. 

1325 AD – 1350 AD : Musunuri Nayaks 

1357 AD : Kapaya Nayaka 
1st June, A.D. 1357 : Pillalamarri, Suryapet
This inscription is on a slab in the Erakesvara temple. Records that Erapotu-lenka, the favourite servant of Kapaya Nayaka who had among others the titles of Andhrades adhiswara, Anuma-nagantipura-Var adhiswara, Chodaraya-sthapanacharya, and Kanchirakshapalaka re-established on Guruvara Jyeshṭha su.13 of Hevalambi, S.1279 (Thursday, 1st June A.D. 1357) the God Erakesvara, ruined by Sultan Alavadinu so that merit might occur to his master Kapeya Nayaka and his own parents Anuma Konda Venchi Nayaka and Rudrasani. He also granted a vritti field of 1 adda behind Devara kumta at Pillalamarri for the offerings to the deity once a day.

This inscription is in Telugu, dated Saka 1279 (A.D. 1357), is of Kapaya Nayaka, brother of Prolaya Nayaka, the Musunuru chief, whose servant Era-potu, son of Machinayaka of Anumakonda, had the deity of Erakesvara re-installed since it had been damaged by Alau'd- Din Khalji, the Sultan of Delhi.

Recherla Nayaks
1361 - 1384 AD : Mada Nayaka I 
The Kandikonda inscription reveals that Mada Naidu brother of Anavotha I had son named Venna. This prince ruled by his fathers orders at Skandadri

1367 AD : Domalapalli.
This inscription is on a stone lying under a tree near the Panchayat office. The names of Pasaitta and Dachaya singa of the Recherla family are stated. The latter's son Madanedu is also mentioned. The inscription is partly broken. It records the installation of the god Chennakesava in the village Domalapalli and the gifts of lands to deities and brahmanas on that occasion (by Machamba, probably the queen of Madanedu).

1377 AD : Anavema Reddi brother of Anavota of Kondaveedu
Anavotas brother Anavema , succeeded to the throne as his son , Kumaragiri , was too young to assume authority . He ruled for about 22 years ( 1364-86 )

24th May A.D. 1377 : Vadapalli or Wadapalli, Miryalaguda
This inscription is on a pillar in the compound of the Agastyesvara temple. States that, while Anavemaya Reddi, the son of Jaganobbaganda Vemaya Reddi was ruling the kingdom of the earth, his servant Kadiyam Poti Nayundu built the sikhara to the sanctum of the temple of Agastyesvara constructed formerly by Pillalamarri Beti Reddi, caused a bell and the doors to the sanctum to be made; presented three eating plates, 3 kudukas, silk clothes and a copper boiler for bathing; offered worship to the deity and set up the pillar inscription.

1399 AD : Vedagiri I
8th March A.D. 1399 : Murupunuthula.
This inscription is on a stone pillar lying near the Muthyalamma temple. The inscription is very damaged. After invoking the god Varaha, it introduces the chiefs of the Recherla family, Era Dacha, Singa and his son Madhava and the latter's son Vedagiri. This last named chief is said to be ruling the country lying between Srisaila and Vindhya mountains. He is stated to have made the grant of the agrahara named Morupnuntula to the god Mallari. Certain Manchena bhattu, otherwise known by his title [Nissamkula] Bharati son of Narayana Somayajulu of Brahmanapalli wrote this inscription. Vedagiri is obviously Peda Vedagiri or Vedagiri I of the Devarakonda branch of the family.

1422 AD - 1518 AD : Bahmani Sultanate (1347 AD - 1518 AD)
Sep 22, 1422 - Apr 17, 1436 A.D : Ahmad Shah I
During Ahmad Shah I's period the region was annexed to Bahmani kingdom.

Apr 17, 1436 - May 6, 1458 : Ahmad Shah II or ALA-UD-DIN AHMAD II
1455 AD : Jalal Khan in A.D 1455 declared himself king at Nalgonda, but it was a shortlined affair. The region was brought back to Bahmani kingdom. The rebel succeeded in capturing several strongholds including Bhongir in this district . Loyal subordi- nates like Recherla Linga

1455 AD : Prince Dawood son of Ahmad I
1455 AD : Rachakonda was annexed to Bahmani kingdom.Singa - 3 later retired to Bellamkonda in Guntur district until death in A.D 1455 . Prince Dawood son of Bahmani Sultan Ahmad - 1 was given charge of Rachakonda

1457 AD : Prince Mahmud
Alau'd - din Ahmad II ( A. D. 1436-1458 ) bestowed Rachakonda on his brother Prince Mahmud after the death of Prince Dawood .

1480 AD - 1503 AD : Shitab Kahn or Sitapati Raju 
Governor of Rachankonda under Bahmani Sultante

1503 AD - 1512 AD : Shitab Kahn or Sitapati Raju
From 1480 to 1485, Sitapati Raju titled Shitab Khan was the Bahmani governor of Rachakonda (near Narayanpur in modern Nalgonda district, Telangana). He seems to have taken advantage of the internal turmoils of the Bahmanis and declared his independence in 1503, ruling from the Rachakonda, Warangal and Khammam forts from 1503 to 1512

1512 AD - 1518 AD : Qutbul-Mulk was appointed as the Governor of Golkonda in Tilangana in 901 AH /1495-96 AD who controlled over Warangal, Rachakonda, Devarkonda and Koilkonda by 1512 AD and was awarded the title Qutb-ul-Mulk (Pillar of the Realm) as military chief.

1518 AD - 1687 AD : Qutbshahis / Golconda Sultanate Qutubshahi's : During the Bahmani Sultan Shihabud-din Mahmun's time Sultan Quli was appointed as tarafdar of Telangana. From him the regions was taken by his son Jamshid. Later the district remained under the control of Qutub Shahis till A.D.1687.

1518 AD - 1543 AD : Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk
1523-24  : Arabic and Persian.
This new record of the time of Masnad-i-`Ali Ulugh A'zam Malik Qutbu'l-Mulk, found at Rajupeta, records the construction of a tank at Yampur, in dedication to the memory of Twelve Imams, in A.H. 930 (A.D. 1523-24) by Baba Khan, a retainer of Malik Qiwamu'l- Mulk, out of his personal money. Of the produce grown with the help of the tank, one share was to be given to the Diwan, two for the uplift of the public and one for the builder which he assigned for the Langar (Free-kitchen) of the Twelve Imams. The yearly income derived from that much land obtained on free-hold lease by the builder in which 5 kuro seed could be sown was to be spent on the repairs of the bridge

A.D. 1543.  : Arabic.
Inscription in the tomb of Sultan Quli Qutb Shah, Qutb Shahi Tombs. The inscriptions are engraved in three bands along the side of the grave which is built of highly polished black basalt in the form of a casket with four exquisitely carved feet and a convex top. The style of writing is Naskh of a very high order and the language is Arabic. The inscription giving the name and the titles of the deceased king and the exact date of his death carved in three at the foot of the grave

1543 AD - 1550 AD :  Jamsheed Quli Qutb Shah
Little is known of Jamsheed's reign, but he is remembered as having been cruel.
He died in 1550 from cancer
13th November A.D. 1544 : Nagulapadu.
Language : Telugu. This inscription is on the addarayi of the northern temple. Records that, Yelid Khan surveyed the sugar-cane, and betel leaf garden, and the tax-free fields in the [Nagu]lapati-sima and that he fixed in the presence of certain Reddis and others (named) that by the bara (the length of two arms extended) of a certain Chinu Sayyid Chimman twenty baras would make a biguv (bigha); and that according to the measure nine biguvs would make a marutu. The inscription was composed by Tadakamaḍla Sirigiraju, the Kulkarni.

1550 AD - 1550 AD : Subhan Quli Qutb Shah Jamsheed's younger brother Ibrahim Quli Qutb Shah returned from Vijayanagara to Golconda, and ascended the throne. Subhan was deposed, and died of illness or was murdered in the same year.

1550 AD - 1580 AD : Ibrahim Quli Qutb Shah
Chief Commander : Sayyid Shah Mir or Sayyad Shah Taqi son of Sayyad Ahmad Tababa
18th November A.D. 1554 : Pangal.
This inscription is on a slab on the tankbund. States that, while İbrahim Kutubu`Sa. (Ibrahim Qutub Shah) was ruling the kingdom, Ramatulla (Rahmat-ullah) his well-wisher reconstructed the dam across the Musi river near Namile in the Indupurela-sima from which Udayasamudram canal feeding the tank at Panugal was dug; repaired canal which obviously fell into disuse; carried the water of the tank up to the Krishna; filled the tanks, reservoir etc between the Namile dam and the Krishna with water; and arranged dasavamdha at Panugal for the grain produced in the area. Details of the shares upto Udayasamudram. King's share 1; people 1½, and for the Turkas (Muslims) and Brahmanas 2.

1580 AD - 1612 AD : Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah

1612 AD - 1626 AD : Sultan Muhammad Qutb Shah
He was the nephew and son-in-law of Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, having married Muhammad's only daughter Hayat Bakshi Begum in 1607.

1626 AD - 1672 AD : Abdullah Qutb ShahAbdullah, son of Sultan Muhammad Qutb Shah
was a polyglot (Multilingualism), and a lover of poetry and music. He invited to his court and respected Kshetrayya, a famous lyric writer. Kshetrayya is known for his romantic poetry

1672 AD - 1687 AD : Abul Hasan Qutb Shah also known as Abul Hasan Tana Shah
The last Sultan of this Shia Islamic dynasty.
In 1636, Shah Jahan forced the Qutb Shahis to recognize Mughal suzerainty, which lasted until 1687 when the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered the Golconda sultanate.

1687 AD - 1724 AD : Mughal Empire

1724 AD - 1948 AD : Asaf Jahis
Nizam-ul-Mulk (Asaf Jah I) defeated Mubasiz Khan at Shaker Khere in Berar and ruled the Deccan in an autonomous capacity. This district, like the other districts of Telangana, passed under the Asaf Jahis and remained under them for a period of nearly two hundred and twenty five years.