Siege of Golconda 1656 AD and 1687 AD

The siege of Golconda in 1656 AD and again in 1687 AD between the Qutb Shahi dynasty and the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, occurring in January 1687 and ended on September 22, 1687.

1652 AD - 1655 AD : Mir Jumla Governor of Golconda and Aurangzeb Viceroy of Deccan
1636 AD : In 1636 AD Shah Jahan appointed Aurangzeb as the Viceroy of the Deccan and forced the Qutb Shahis to recognize Mughal suzerainty, which lasted until 1687 when the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered the Golcondan sultanate.

Mir Jumla was actually a Persin, the son of an Ispahan oil merchant,

1638 AD : In 1638 rose Mir Jumla to the chief minister of the Golconda Kingdom and received the title of Mir Jumla. In his handling of the Karnataka invasioin the early 1640s Mir Jumla proved to be talented military strategist and diplomat. For ten years from 1642 - 1652 his armies were engaged against Nayaks. 

1655 AD : Golconda’s ruler began to worry that Mir Jumla was coming more of a dangerous rival than a loyal subject. A quarrel followed about booty and the sly vizer was summoned to Hyderabad, but escaped  when he found a plot underway to seize and blind him. 
Mir Jumlas son Mohamad Amin who acted as his father's deputy in hyderabad came to court staggeringly drink, fell asleep and drooled vomit on the imperial carpet. It was the last straw. He and his family found themselves clapped into prison, their property confiscated.

First Seize January 7, 1656 AD - April 13, 1656 AD
Shah Jahan sent a robe of honor and a royal decree to Mir Jumla, appointing him commander of five thousand horse and making his son a peer as well and an imperial dispatch to the sultan of Golconda requested him not to detain the Jumla family or their property, Both the imperial letters reached Aurangabad on January 7, 1656 AD.

Appointing his sixteen year old son Mohammed Sultan, to lead the Moguls across Golconda’s frontier, Aurangzeb opted for a cavalry dash to Hyderabad. 

According to the plan it was only after Aurangazebs troops had entered Golconda territory that the Sultan of Golconda received Shah Jahan’s second letter. Fearfully and instantly, Qutb Shah released Mr Jumlas son and family who meets Mohammad Sultan 24 miles from Hyderabad and found a reason to continue his father’s invasion as Jumla family property not restored yet. 

Mogul cavalry swept on to hyderabad, the sultan retreated to Golconda fortress with his children and as much treasure he could gather. From his Golconda fortress Abdul Shah sent Mohammed Sultan not one but fifty doves with olive branches. Daily envoys carried presents (two hinders caskets of jewels, two elephants with silver howdahs and four horses with gold trappings) and all of Mir Jumlas property was restored.  But, nothing could be done until Aurangazeb arrived on February 6, 1656 AD.

Golconda’s official envoy now approached Dara Shikoh where emperors sense of justice was corroded by Prime Minister Sadullah Khan working in conjunction with Aurangazebs belligerent persuasions. Shah Jahan reflected and wrote Qutb Shah an imperial pardon at the price of indemnity, dispatching with robe of honor. But, the letter was sent via Aurangzeb, who with held communication. Sultanated queen mother soliciting peace, proposed heavy compensation and even a marriage arrangement between princess of Golconda house and Aurangazebs eldest son. But before this could proceed orders came from Shah Jahan’s himself to stop the siege of Golconda and withdraw immediately. Aurangzeb left Golconda on April 13, 1656 he remitted emperors pardon with robe of honor and an agreement stamped with impression of Shah Jahan’s hand dripped in vermilion. By way of consolation, Mohammad Sultan did marry Golconda princess and a grateful Mir Jumla offered gifts to Aurangzeb and presented Shahjahan Kohinoor diamond

1687 AD Second Seize : The Deccan viceroy Shajahan proposed to Mir Jumla that he hand over the Hyderabad and Karnatak to Mughal rule and then attack golconda from the south while Aurangzeb’s armies invaded  from the northwest. Mir Jumla accepted Aurangzeb offer and became  a collborator in a plan to invade Golconda.

In January 1687, After conquering two Muslim kingdoms, the Nizamshahis of Ahmednagar and the Adilshahis of Bijapur, Aurangzeb led his Mughal army against the Deccan Qutb Shahi ruler taking refuge in Golconda Fort. Aurangzeb had surrounded Golconda Fort and alongside about 100 cannons began siege operations.

General Dilir Khan was assigned to command the Matchlock Sepoys that tried to penetrate the defenses of Golconda Fort. In order to breach the granite walls of Golconda Fort, Firuz Jang was appointed to utilize the massive Rahban, Fateh Rahberand the cannon known as the Azhdaha-Paikar (python body). It had the ability to shoot cannonballs weighing over 50 kg. In response to the Mughal bombardment, Abul Hasan Qutb Shah fired from his high-vicinity mortar called the Pata Burj. According to Saqi Mustad Khan, bamboo rockets were also utilized day and night on Mughal encampments.

Ghaziuddin Khan Siddiqi Firuz Jang, son of Khwaja Abid Siddiqi Kilich Khan and father of Nizam I of Hyderabad, Qamaruddin Khan Siddiqi, was assigned to bombard the walls of the fort using almost 100 cannons.While Shaista Khan, Murshid Quli Khan and Ibrahim Khan commanded the rest of the army and it's reserves around Golconda Fort and throughout all the Qutb Shahi territory.

Death of Kilich Khan Khwaja Abid Siddiqi Mughal Commander
The intense cannon fire from Golconda Fort against the approaching Mughals eventually caused the death of the experienced Mughal commander Kilich Khan Khwaja Abid Siddiqi. Aurangzeb was furthermore grieved by the death of his long-time commander Gaziuddin Khan Siddiqi Bahadur Firuz Jang, who died of natural causes.

At night, the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb and his infantry of assembled and erected scaffolding that allowed them to scale the high walls. Aurangzeb also ordered his men to throw huqqa (grenades) while scaling the fortified wall and were reinforced by matchlocks and composite bows. While most of these attacks remained largely unsuccessful, they managed to demoralize the defenders of Golconda Fort.

Munnawar Khan Mughal Admiral
Assigned to deliver food and weapons to the besieging Mughal army. During the eight-month siege the Mughals faced small-scale famines, often for weeks at a time. Whenever the Mughal Admiral Munnawar Khan arrived with supplies and weapons with his river fleet, Aurangzeb would intensify the siege
Meanwhile, due to heavy rains, the Manjera River overflooded and the scarcity of food supplies became a severe complication, leading to the deaths of many animals and caused malnourished troops to get ill. Fearing a possible counterattack organized from the fort, Aurangzeb ordered the construction of a fortified position made of wood and mud, which would house and organize Mughal attacking parties.

Traitor Sarandaz Khan
September 22 1687 AD : The Siege of Golconda, ordered by Emperor Aurangzeb of India's Mughal Empire against the capital of the Golconda sultanate, ends after nine months when a traitor inside the walled city, Sarandaz Khan, opens the first of several entrances into the fortress. 

The Sultan Abul Hasan Qutb Shah is taken prisoner by General Mir Shahabud-Din, and Golconda (now part of Hyderabad in the Telangana state) and Nur-Ul-Ain DiamondGreat Stone DiamondKara DiamondDarya-e-Nur, the Hope Diamond, the Wittelsbach Diamond and the Regent Diamond.

The Golconda Sultanate was incorporated as a subah, or province of the Mughal Empire, called Hyderabad Subah.