Komaram Bheem Asifabad District History

Kumuram Bheem Asifabad District is carved out of erstwhile Adilabad District. It is surrounded by Adilabad, Mancherial, Nirmal districts and the boarders of Maharashtra state. Kumuram Bheem Asifabad District comprises 15 mandals and has two revenue divisions – Asifabad and Kaghaznagar.

Known as Jangam or Jungam in the early years of the last century, Asifabad town was the headquarters of the district by the same name before it became part of Adilabad district with Adilabad town as its headquarters in 1905.

Sirpur-Tandur was originally a district in Maratwada region. Later it was merged with Adilabad district of Telangana. In 2016, Komaram Bheem district was carved out of Adilabad district, and consequently, Sirpur now is in Komaram Bheem district.

1199 AD : Kakatiya king Ganapatideva granted land to a certain Brahmin named Manchibhattopadhyaya for establishing Sirpur taluk in Adilabad district by Chennur Allumprola Raja.

The Gonds of Chanda originated from Sirpur in what is now northern Telangana and were said to have overthrown the previous rulers of the country, called the Mana dynasty

According to Gond legends, a Gond chief, Bhim Ballal Singh, organized the Gonds and established his rule in Sirpur in 870 AD. The legend also names 19 Gond rulers.

1310 AD : Ananir (or Ananur)
The same day Malik Kafur reached Bavagarh, he led a cavalry unit to besiege Sabar, a fort located within the Kakatiya frontier region. Historian Kishori Saran Lal identifies Sabar with modern Sirpur. Khusrau's account suggests that this was a surprise attack for the defenders: faced with a certain defeat, some of them committed suicide with their wives and children in a jauhar fire. Some others, probably including the fort's commander, were killed after Kafur's soldiers entered the fort. The surviving defenders were ready to fight to death, but then a truce was negotiated because of intervention by Khwaja Haji. Ananir (or Ananur), a brother of the fort's commander, was found hiding in a field. He surrendered to the invaders, and was appointed as the fort's new governor by Malik Kafur. Some of the refugees from Sabar fled to Warangal

c. 1330 AD - 1751 A.D: Sirpur-Chanda Gond Dynasty of Gondwana Kingdom
Founder : Kol Bhill or Kol Bheel or Kolkhil
Capitals : Sirpur (modern Komaram Bheem Asifabad district, Telangana), Ballarsha, Chanda (Chandrapur district, Maharashtra)
Languages : Gondi language is known as ‘Koyator’ among Gonds. Southern Gondi, Adilabad Gondi, Northern Gondi, Aheri Gondi are variants of the language.
Religion : Brahmanical Hinduism or Cult of the Persa Pen (clan deities); ancestor spirit worship
Royal Emblem : Lion and Elephant
Family Name: Singh, Shah

Bhim Ballal Singh
Contemporary of Kakatiya Ganapatideva Bhim Ballal Singh actually started the Sirpur-Chanda Gond Kingdom. His capital was at Sirpur, on the right bank of the Wardha river, and his chief stronghold was the fortress of Manikgarh, in the hills behind Sirpur. For the first eight generations these Gond kings reigned at Sirpur, in the modern State of Telangana.

The Gond King, Bhim Ballal Sing built Sirpur Fort

Kharja Bhallal Singh 
Son of Bhim Ballal Singh

Hira or Heera Singh

Andia Bhallal Singh

Talwar Singh

Kesar Singh

Dinkar or Dinakar Singh

Ram Singh

1405 AD - 1437 AD - Surja Ballal Singh alis Ser Shah

1472 AD - 1497 AD : Khandkia or Khandkya Ballal Shah
Changed Capital from Sirpur to first Ballarsha and later to Chanda.

1497 AD - 1522 AD: Heer Shah
Hira or Heera Singh Conspicuous amongst these rulers was Hir Singh the grandson of Bhim Ballal Singh. Brave in war and wise in administration he was the first to persuade his wild fellow-countrymen to cultivate the land. To him is attributed some- thing like a rudimentary land-revenue system. First to levy tax on occupied lands.

1522 AD - 1542 AD : Bhuma and Lokba

1542 AD - 1572 AD : Kam Shah

1572 AD - 1597 AD : Babaji Ballal Shah
Babji Ballal Shah, the Ain-i-Akbari records the kingdom as being fully independent, and it even conquered some territory from nearby sultanates. 
Seldom is any mention made of these jungle kingdoms in the annals of the Imperial Court at Delhi but so prosperous and important had Southern Gondwana become at this period that in the Ain-i-Akbari or Chronicles of Akbar it is recorded of Babaji Ballal Shah Kam Shah's son that he paid no tribute to Delhi and possessed an army of 10,000 cavaliy and 40,000 infantry." In his reign the city of Wairagarh— the capital of their hereditary foes was added to the kingdom of Chanda.

However, during Akbar's rule, Babji Shah began paying tribute after the Mughals incorporated territory to their south into the Berar Subah

1597 AD - 1622 AD : Dhundia Ram Shah
it was during his reign that the city - walls surrounding Chanda were completed and , as such , inaugurated by him with due ceremonies , which included , among other things .

1611 AD : Govind Rao
1611 AD: During the reign of emperor Jahangir grants to Govind Rao sardeshmukh of the domain of Raja Birshah and Raja Ballashah zamindari and jagir rights that is the rights of revenue collection and local administration in the five villages of Sirpur, Pangri, Kanchapalli, Jainur and Chorpalli.

1622 AD - 1640 AD : Krishna Shah 
Son. Extended territory to Nagpur.
The custom of sacrificing cows to the gond god pharsa pen was abolished by him and it was substituted with goat.
1637 A.D - In January of 1637, Deogarh was invaded by Khan-i-Dauran joined by Krishna Shah of Chanda, who had an enmity with the Deogarh kings since the reign of Jatba. Kok Shah was defeated in the siege of the Nagpur fort and submitted to Khan-i-Dauran on 16 January 1637.

1640 AD - 1691 AD : Bir ShahBir Shah discontinues tribute to the Moghuls following the house arrest of Shah Jahan, but Aurangzeb sends an army under the command of Diler Khan to attack the Gonds, forcing them to sue for peace.

1691 AD - 1735 A.D - Ram Shah
Famous for wisdom and uprightness was Ram Shah, one of the last kings of Chanda, that it is reported of him that when Raghuji Bhonsla, the Maratha leader, visited Chanda, with a view to seeking a pretext for a quarrel, he ended his visit by almost worshipping him as a god. " Well would it have been, so Canon Wood writes in his article on Chanda, 'if the fast failing thread of the Gond rule had been severed at Ram Shah's death."

Mubariz Khan

1724 AD : Nizam-e-Mulk
In 1724 AD, Nizam-e-Mulk defeated Mubariz Khan and took possession of the Deccan and began to rule.

1735 AD - 1751 A.D - Neelkanth Shah
For Ram Shah's son and successor, Nilkanth Shah, was an evil and cruel ruler, who dismissed his father's most trustworthy councillors, ground down his subjects, and interfered foolishly and needlessly in the political disputes of Deogarh. And all the time the Maratha foe was but waiting for his opportunity, and when he again approached the gates of the royal city of Chanda, it was not by force of arms, but by the treachery of a discontented people, that he triumphed.

1751 AD : The last Gond Raja Nilkanth Shah was defeated and imprisoned by Raghoji Bhonsla of Nagpur in 1751 AD and merged into Nagpur.

1751 AD - Bhonsale dynasty
1751 AD - 14 Feb, 1755 AD : Raghoji I Bhonsle (1739 – 14 Feb 1755)

14 Feb, 1755 AD - 21 May 1772 AD : Janoji Bhonsle

21 May 1772 AD - 19 May 1788 AD : Mudhoji Bhonsle
1773 AD Entered into an agreement with Nizam Ali Khan, Nizam of Hyderabad by which he agreed to cede Manikgarh (Rajura of Chandrapur) with surrounding territories south of Penganga to the Nizam, in return for the forts of Gavilgarh and Narnala of Amaravati district - Berar.

19 May 1788 AD - 1803 AD : Raghoji II Bhonsle (19 May 1788 AD - 22 Mar 1816 AD)
1795 AD : Jukut Rao
In 1795 the nizams of Hyderabad were at war with Marathas, who’s power reached Zenith in 18th C.AD Gond chief, Jukut Rao, held the district a djoining the maratha territory a s Jagir from the Bhonsles ( Marathas). 

1803 AD : Marathas occupied Adilabad district till Nirmal from Nizam. In 1803 AD as a result of war between the British and Raghoji Bhonsle II, under the treaty of Deogaon, the latter ceded the territory of Berar to the British who in turn passed it on to their ally, the Nizam under treaty obligations for his co-operation in the war. Consequently, Sirpur, the ancient seat of the Gond rulers, passed into the hands of the Asaf Jahi rulers till the state of Hyderabad joined the Indian Union


c. 1840 AD - 9th April 1860 AD : Ramji Gond
Ramji Gond ruled Asifabad wich comprised some parts of Nirmal and Adilabad areas. At that time the area was known as Jangam.

Gonds under Ramji Gond's leadership revolted against the British, which was suppressed by the then administrators at Nirmal.

1864 AD : When from 1864 onwards the ryotwari system was implemented in Hyderabad state by its prime minister Salarjung I (1853-1883), the Gond Rajas and chiefs all lost their jagirs (land grants) and watan (revenue collectiion) rights.

Only the Raja of Sirpur was honoured with a jagirdari right and Raja of Utnur with maqta (estate) right over five villages

1867 AD : Yadav Shah
1869 AD The tutelary Rajas (zamindars) who hitherto had symbolic rights of land were given proprietary rights to their estates in a settlement in 1869. In this way 20 zamindaris were created in the Chanda of which 17 were Gonds, two were Hindus and one muslim.

1872 AD : Under Asaf jahis a sub district by name Sirpur-tandur was created in 1872 with three talukas namely Edulapuram (Adilabad), Rajura and Sirpur.

1905 AD : Ram Shah
By 1905 full-fledged district was created by name Adilabad, with Adilabad town as its head quarters by including Nirmal, Nasspur talukas from Nizamabad (Indur) and C hennur, Luxetipet talukas from Elagandla ( Karimnagar) districts. By bifurcating Nasspur taluka a new Kinwat taluka was created and remaining villages of the Nasspur taluka were added to Nirmal taluka. 

1907 AD : In 1906 Janagaon taluka was created. 1907 it was renamed as Asifabad, in this few villages of Sirpur and Luxetipet talukas w ere a dded. Thus A dilabad district was formed with eight talukas ( Rajura, 
Sirpur, Asifabad, Adilabad, Luxetipet, Chinoor, Nirmal, and Kinwat)

1905 AD - 1906 AD : Deo Shah uncle of Ram Shah

1906 AD : Govind Shah brother of Ram Shah
1907 AD : In 1906 Jangam taluka was created. 1907 it was renamed as Asifabad, in this few villages of Sirpur and Luxetipet talukas were added. Thus Adilabad district was formed with eight talukas ( Rajura,
Sirpur, Asifabad, Adilabad, Luxetipet, Chinoor, Nirmal, and Kinwat)

1906 AD - 1918 AD : Dinker Shah son of Govind Shah
In 1913-14 AD headquarter was shifted to Asifabad from Adilabad and was once again shifted back 
to Adilabad by 1940-41

1918 AD - 1947 AD : Yadav Shah

As late as the 1940 the Raja Akbar Shah of Chanda, who was of Atram clan, occupied the highest position within the traditional feudal system

Atram Rajas of Sirpur
Rajas of Atram clan whose descendants possess still the original sanad- documents granted by the Emperor Aurangzeb in 1611 AD.

The Atram Rajas of Sirpur in Utnur taluk were related and subordinate to Atram Rajas of Chanda.

Raja Atram Jangu Bapu
Atram Jangu Bapu, the raja of Kanchanpalli who set up the village Kanchanpalli dug up the well for the villagers. 

Narsing Rao
Recognized as Deshmukh. Lived in Mamidpalli at the end of his life and not in Sirpur.

Sitagondi rajas ruled also over part of the present Asifabad taluk and gave to the ancestor of the Maravi rajas the village of Borda (Borjam) near Dorli between Asifabad and Tilani.

Govind Rao
In the year 1914 , two important changes were made in the Adilabad District ; first one was the transfer of headquarters of the District from Adilabad to Asifabad

Rajesh Rao
Accepted the offer of Bhim Rao of Kanchanpalli to help him in the administration of Sirpur Patti.

1942 AD : Bheemrao Senior
It was in 1942 that Ethnographer Haimendorf and his wife Elizabeth had first come to Kanchanpalli, situated in Sirpur (U) mandal about 12 km from Jainoor mandal headquarters village, seeking help from Bheem Rao senior for their research work.

Ethnographer is a person who studies and describes the culture of a particular society or group

Bhagwant Rao 
As late as the 1950s the Gonds of Sirpur occasionally approached the Zamindar of Ahiri for the settlement of disputes , and he fulfilled certain functions of a tribal head 

Atram Bheemrao

Atram Bheemrao, of the present 6th generation of the family, told Decan Chronicle that Raja Jangu Bapu belonged to the family’s first generation.

Atram Bheem Rao, inheritor of the Gond Raja of Kanchanpalli title, remembers Christoph von F├╝rer-Haimendorf and his contributions to improving the lives of the Raj Gond and other Adivasi tribes of the Adilabad region. When he does, he visits a 250-metre high hill near his village, atop which is a small platform made of stones, to pay his respects to the memory of the legendary Austrian ethnographer.

Sitagondi Branch
Israi Jangu Babu 




Comments

  1. Please try to give attributions to the Photographers, I see some of the images you are using are from Wikimedia Commons by Wikipedia.

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